Index of Terms

aesthetics 8analytics 32card sorting 8co-design 42collaborative learning 11color 59contextual analysis 8contextual design 4design 775design case 26design expertise 6design methods 16design principles 12design process 60design thinking 11emotion 52empathy 11engagement 81epistemology 1equity 14evaluation methods 3experimental evaluation 9eye-tracking 4flow theory 21focus group 6game design 18game-based learning 13gamification 24Heuristic evaluation 6human-centered 26human-centered design (HCD) 1human-computer interaction (HCI) 9hypothesis testing 3immersive technology 31instructional design (ID) 3interaction design 12interviews 19learner analysis 5learner experience 66learner experience design (LXD) 3learner-centered design 15learning design 79learning experience 80learning experience design 25learning technology 9logic model 3MOOC 56needs analysis 6needs assessment 28novice 43online courses 18online learning 28paradigms 11participatory design 23pedagogical usability 30pedagogy 14personas 26professional development 29prototype 50public innovation 9reading comprehension 11requirements 17scenarios 11sense-making 2serious games 11social dimension 10technological usability 9technology-enhanced learning 7theory of change 22think-aloud 26Universal Design for Learning (UDL) 1usability 147user experience (UX) 10user-centered design (UCD) 2visual analytics 8visual design 5wireframe 6

aesthetics

Paradigms of Knowledge Production in Human-Computer Interaction: Towards a Framing for Learner Experience (LX) Design

  1. … Taking [a]part: The politics and aesthetics of participation in experience-centered…
  2. … Dewey’s notion of pragmatist aesthetics (e.g., Dewey, 1934/2005) to guide user/learner…

Flow Theory and Learning Experience Design in Gamified Learning Environments

  1. … 2018) but overlook the role of aesthetics and error prevention during the design…

Color Theory in Experience Design

  1. … important in all designs for aesthetics but is especially important in those that…

The Design Implementation Framework: Guiding Principles for the Redesign of a Reading Comprehension Intelligent Tutoring System

  1. … showed significant improvements in aesthetics and interpretability of performance…
  2. … responsive design, modernized aesthetics, and clearer dashboards. In some of our…

From Engagement to User Experience: A Theoretical Perspective Towards Immersive Learning

  1. … overall value of ideas such as aesthetics, affect, and fun (Hassenzahl & Tractinsky,…

Think-Aloud Observations to Improve Online Course Design: A Case Example and “How-to” Guide

  1. … intuitiveness, functionality, and even aesthetics. When considering online learning…

analytics

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … Schools: Using Visual Learning analytics to Understand Learners’ Classroom Experiences,…

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. 4.10. analytics
  2. Increasingly, learning analytics and data dashboards are being incorporated into…
  3. … learning and data science is analytics. analytics are typically collected automatically…
  4. … case library through learning analytics and gaming principles: An educational design…

Paradigms of Knowledge Production in Human-Computer Interaction: Towards a Framing for Learner Experience (LX) Design

  1. … rising in areas such as learning analytics, which could be productively explored…

Sociotechnical-Pedagogical Usability for Designing and Evaluating Learner Experience in Technology-Enhanced Environments

  1. … & Tawfik, A. A. (2018). Using analytics to transform a problem-based case library:…

Intentional Learning Design for Educational Games: A Workflow Supporting Novices and Experts

  1. … & Degano, C. (2015). Learning analytics architecture to scaffold learning experience…

Supporting Equity in Schools: Using Visual Learning Analytics to Understand Learners’ Classroom Experiences

  1. … attend to equity using visual analytics. We adopted the grounded theory approach…
  2. … for Producing Equitable Visual analytics
  3. … provided with access to learning analytics through instructor dashboards, i.e.,…
  4. … reference model for learning analytics. International Journal of Technology Enhanced…
  5. … illustrates our ideas about how visual analytics tools can support more equitable…
  6. … (2019). Human-centred learning analytics. Journal of Learning analytics, 6(2),…
  7. … exploring teacher needs for real-time analytics in blended classrooms. LAK '17:…
  8. … feedback on the design of the visual analytics tool addressing equity.
  9. … seventh international learning analytics & knowledge conference (pp. 398-403).…
  10. … agenda for human centered learning analytics (Buckingham Shum et al., 2019). Holstein…
  11. … 2016; Stecker et al., 2008), analytics tools need to be designed so that they match…
  12. … field has been late in adopting analytics, compared to other disciplines such as…
  13. … seventh international learning analytics & knowledge conference (pp. 429-438).…
  14. … instructor dashboard for real-time analytics in interactive programming assignments.…
  15. … Educational data mining and learning analytics. In R. K. Sawyer (Ed.), Cambridge…
  16. … design of the SEETs as a visual analytics tool. Teachers first gather student data…
  17. … seventh international learning analytics & knowledge conference (pp. 439-443).…
  18. … seventh international learning analytics & knowledge conference (pp. 188-197).…
  19. … applied to the design of learning analytics systems where designers must grapple…
  20. … SEETs, validate our view of visual analytics as having the potential to serve as…
  21. … Working together in learning analytics towards the co-creation of value. Journal…
  22. … better adaptation of the learning analytics systems to support data-driven instruction.…
  23. … different visualizations based on analytics from sample classroom data addressing…
  24. … Exit Tickets (SEET): A Visual analytics Tool Supporting Equitable Instruction at…

card sorting

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. 4.3. card sorting
  2. card sorting is particularly useful for learning designers creating courses in learning…
  3. … method used to achieve this is card sorting. card sorting is used during front-end…
  4. card sorting can be conducted physically using tools like index cards and sticky notes…
  5. Hudson, W. (2012). card sorting. In M. Soegaard, & R. F. Dam (Eds.), The encyclopedia…
  6. … J. R., & Wood, L. E. (2008). card sorting: Current practice and beyond. Journal of…
  7. … information within their mind. For card sorting best practices, refer to the work…

Supporting Equity in Schools: Using Visual Learning Analytics to Understand Learners’ Classroom Experiences

  1. … design interviews (generative card sorting exercises, semi-structured interviews,…

co-design

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … chapter Participatory Design and co-design—the Case of a MOOC on Public Innovation,…
  2. … example by using participatory and co-design methods, presents opportunities for…

Paradigms of Knowledge Production in Human-Computer Interaction: Towards a Framing for Learner Experience (LX) Design

  1. … (McCarthy & Wright, 2015) and co-design (Sanders & Stappers, 2008)
  2. … presence: (a) participatory and co-design approaches, and (b) critical and speculative…
  3. … use of participatory design and co-design approaches in HCI/UX has facilitated…

Intentional Learning Design for Educational Games: A Workflow Supporting Novices and Experts

  1. … explicitly include students as co-designers (Marklund & Alklind Taylor, 2016).…
  2. … become directly involved in the co-design of their own learning activities. Whilst…
  3. … level of learner involvement and co-design. Refer to the work of Marklund and Alklind…
  4. … ideally be closely involved in co-designing their own learning behaviors to ensure…

Participatory Design and Co-Design—The Case of a MOOC on Public Innovation

  1. … team organized participatory and co-design workshops with potential users and learners.…
  2. … introducing what they called “co-design.” The main objectives were to develop…
  3. The June session was held using co-design methods to help prototype the macro-design…
  4. … innovation challenge and formed co-design teams; they worked together during two…
  5. One of the critical phases of co-design is the testing. In participatory design,…
  6. … immersion in participatory design and co-design sessions were organized with external…
  7. … in June (Figure 9) and further co-designed the MOOC.
  8. Using a co-design and a participatory design process (Sanders & Stappers, 2008,…
  9. … process, participants in the co-design became partners and actors in the participatory…
  10. … observing and participating in co-design sessions[1] of public services or training…
  11. The co-design method focused on producing artifacts in limited time using craft…
  12. In this chapter, co-design refers to “the creativity of designers and people not…
  13. … designers using participatory/co-design methods can powerfully achieve two goals:…
  14. The July co-design session ended with a final test conducted using all current attendees…
  15. … MOOC, we will now focus on two co-design workshops to present the means and methods…
  16. The co-design of this MOOC played a role in exploring new, hybrid end-users’ learning…
  17. … roadmap seminars, seminar speakers, co-design seminar) as well as digital networks…
  18. … and practitioners when using co-design and a participatory process:
  19. … The team used design thinking, co-design, and participatory design to define the…
  20. … seminar dedicated to innovation and co-design called the University of Public Innovation.…
  21. 3. The co-design of the MOOC: Process and Means
  22. … Institution was implementing co-design as a new strategy to foster collaboration…
  23. 3.2. The June Session: co-design of the MOOC Architecture
  24. The co-design session was organized to produce and test prototypes. During the afternoon,…
  25. … Participatory, Design Thinking and co-design
  26. … design. For this participatory-co-design method, we applied adapted facilitation…
  27. First, participatory design and co-design sessions need a sufficient number and…
  28. The team design built the co-design session’s program focusing on conditions of…
  29. The co-design practices have been delivered to several units within the Institution,…
  30. … action-training seminar using co-design to work on various digitalization projects.…
  31. … methodology of participatory design and co-design processes were used to engineer…
  32. The co-design method consisted in producing collective ideas and artifacts in small…
  33. … built using an instructional co-design process. On a micro scale, participants…

collaborative learning

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. … Zaphiris, P. (2014). Understanding collaborative learning activities in an information ecology:…

Flow Theory and Learning Experience Design in Gamified Learning Environments

  1. … strategies (Kim et al., 2017), and collaborative learning approaches (Chen et al., 2018). Indeed,…

Sociotechnical-Pedagogical Usability for Designing and Evaluating Learner Experience in Technology-Enhanced Environments

  1. … interaction in computer-supported collaborative learning environments: A review of the research.…

Participatory Design and Co-Design—The Case of a MOOC on Public Innovation

  1. … discovery learning path or the collaborative learning path and organized themselves in project…
  2. 2.4. A MOOC Project Based on collaborative learning: Toward a New Generation of MOOCs in the…
  3. … main objectives were to develop collaborative learning to accelerate the use of digital tools…
  4. … operational projects. Promoting online collaborative learning through online communities could…
  5. … from their remote participants. collaborative learning within a MOOC offers benefits that can…
  6. … team envisioned a MOOC based on collaborative learning and social learning to foster commitment…
  7. Building MOOCs around online collaborative learning had the advantage of being more focused on…

Supporting Equity in Schools: Using Visual Learning Analytics to Understand Learners’ Classroom Experiences

  1. … Amplifying and attenuating inequity in collaborative learning: Toward an analytical framework.…

color

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … out this section is Kimmons’ color Theory in Experience Design, a chapter…

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. … screen elements (such as the color or size of a button), typeface used, placement…
  2. … paper prototyping, but stencils, colored markers, and colored paper can also…

Color Theory in Experience Design

  1. Outside the visual arts, color is rarely discussed by professionals in systematic…
  2. … Then, upload the image to Adobe color via the “Extract from an image” feature.…
  3. Google. (n.d.). The color system. Material Design. https://edtechbooks.org/-Cqk
  4. … Friedman, R., & Meinhardt, J. (2007). color and psychological functioning:…
  5. … meaning one and chroma meaning color) utilize a single, dominant color and…
  6. … M., & Hoeksma, J. B. (1995). colors and emotions: Preferences and combinations.…
  7. … of the affective meanings of color. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 4(2),…
  8. … the what, how, when, and why of color-use in UX design is difficult to come…
  9. Achromatic color schemes (meaning no color) use only variations on black, white,…
  10. And fourth, to use colors well in any design effort, the designer must not only…
  11. … some of the applied aspects of color-use that will influence the craft of UX…
  12. Once you have created a color scheme you are happy with, you can import the…
  13. When people see the colors represented by the color wheel, they have various…
  14. … prompt differ based upon its color? Seeing a red prompt might make you stop…
  15. … research on the emotional effects of color extends at least back to the 1950s.…
  16. … some of the physics of light and color. color is a visual sensation created…
  17. … inclusive classroom: The effects of color on learning and behavior. Journal…
  18. Recognizing these two approaches to color mixing is important to understand…
  19. … start with a single, dominant color that matches your overall emotional objective…
  20. … though two similarly-saturated colors, such as crimson and blue, may look quite…
  21. … understand issues of contextual color-use, differential affective influences…
  22. … Mehrabian, A. (1994). Effects of color on emotions. Journal of Experimental…
  23. … generate millions of possible colors, including basic hues of the color wheel,…
  24. … intensities of only three primary colors of light: red, green, and blue (RGB).…
  25. 2. Physics of color and Technical Use
  26. … learning: Effects of shape and color on affect and learning. Learning and Instruction,…
  27. Second, colors can be used to quickly and efficiently draw the attention of…
  28. Notation Examples of Common colors
  29. 5. color Schemes
  30. … rely upon two or more nearby colors on the color wheel, generally spanning…
  31. … meaningfully communicate with clients, color also plays an important affective…
  32. … two products use the exact same colors (as in Figure 8), how the colors are…
  33. In addition, the context of color-use is important, as in the case of otherwise…
  34. … Tarabrina, N. V. (1997). The colors of anger, envy, fear, and jealousy: A cross-cultural…
  35. … shown that human reactions to color vary by hue, with long-wavelength colors…
  36. … research into the science of color-use is valuable, but how each of us then…
  37. … because of the content and the color, while option (3) feels like there is…
  38. … (2004). Relationship between color and emotion: A study of college students.…
  39. To promote color harmony, and to implement the other guiding considerations…
  40. … assumptions and receive wisdom about color in order to create the best designs…
  41. … available to designers that provide color scheme examples, such as the Adobe…
  42. … interesting, but the dominant colors are distinct enough from one another that…
  43. Third, because color conveys emotional (and sometimes even conceptual) meaning…
  44. Hue is not the only aspect of color that influences emotion; a color’s saturation…
  45. The color wheel is conceived as circular rather than linear, because colors…
  46. … physics and technical notations for color, (b) scholarly literature on the…
  47. … Smith, P. C. (1959). A system of color preferences. American Journal of Psychology,…
  48. … operate from a different model of color mixing. Though mixing a green ray of…
  49. … rule, you should choose a primary color to dominate 60% of the field of view,…
  50. … of four psychological primary colors on GSR, heart rate, and respiration rate.…
  51. … they use three or more dominant colors equally situated around the color wheel…

The Design Implementation Framework: Guiding Principles for the Redesign of a Reading Comprehension Intelligent Tutoring System

  1. … progress is represented through color-coded progress bars (Figure 4). Teachers…
  2. … was recoded with an identical colored-coded progress bar design and the ability…

Integrating Learner and User Experience Design: A Bidirectional Approach

  1. The UXD then selected a color palette and typeface and created a user interface…

Supporting Equity in Schools: Using Visual Learning Analytics to Understand Learners’ Classroom Experiences

  1. … suggested using the same background color for questions belonging to a similar…
  2. … partnership between the University of colorado Boulder and a large urban school…

contextual analysis

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … underscores (a) the importance of contextual analysis to understand learners’ work practice…

The Role of Needs Assessment to Validate Contextual Factors Related to User Experience Design Practices

  1. … between needs assessment and contextual analysis as they relate to UX design, and discuss…
  2. … and Beyer (2013) characterize contextual analysis in user design as adhering to the following…
  3. While contextual analysis aims at understanding the user's work practice, needs assessment…
  4. … designers must conduct a true contextual analysis to uncover the interactivity that exists…
  5. contextual analysis is the process of analyzing factors that may contribute to or inhibit…
  6. 5. Needs Analysis and contextual analysis in User Experience Design
  7. … assessment and needs analysis; contextual analysis; and learner analysis. The purpose of…

contextual design

Paradigms of Knowledge Production in Human-Computer Interaction: Towards a Framing for Learner Experience (LX) Design

  1. … H., & Holtzblatt, K. (1998). contextual design: Defining customer-centered systems. Morgan…

The Role of Needs Assessment to Validate Contextual Factors Related to User Experience Design Practices

  1. Holtzblatt, K., & Beyer, H. (2014). contextual design: evolved. Synthesis Lectures on Human-Centered…
  2. contextual design is referenced in UX design and human-computer interaction literature.…

Supporting Equity in Schools: Using Visual Learning Analytics to Understand Learners’ Classroom Experiences

  1. … the value of using HCD methods (contextual design, design tensions) with teachers for designing…

design

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … Balakrishnan present a conceptual design framework blending immersive technology…
  2. Schmidt, M. M. (2014). designing for learning in a three-dimensional virtual…
  3. … includes, but is not limited to, the designed intervention, learner-as-user,…
  4. … (2018). Conducting Educational design Research. Routledge.
  5. … introduction for the field of Learning design & Technology.  https://edtechbooks.org/ux
  6. … P. (2017). Leveling up: Game design research and practice for instructional…
  7. … field of learning/instructional design and technology (LIDT). We recognized…
  8. … low-precedent context of instructional design. Learnxdesign: Proceedings of…
  9. … Framing for Learner Experience (LX) design, conceives of LX design as an emerging,…
  10. … like LX, LXD, LCD, and learning design have been readily adopted, it is unclear…
  11. … case-based reasoning and educational design research. In B. Hokanson, G. Clinton,…
  12. … A great deal of instructional design (ID) projects can be described as multidisciplinary.…
  13. … well-established practices of instructional design (ID), authors Stefaniak and…
  14. … (2010a). Preparing Instructional designers for Game-Based Learning: Part 1.…
  15. … Theory and Learning Experience design in Gamified Learning Environments by Vann…
  16. … paradigms, and theories related to LX design. The chapters in this section illustrate…
  17. The prospect of instructional designers and/or LX designers collaborating with…
  18. … not feasible. However, while LX design indeed does require multiple literacies,…
  19. … Frick, T. (2008). User-centered design and development. In J. M. Spector, M.…
  20. … McKenney, S. (2015). Collaborative design as a form of professional development.…
  21. … Integrating Learner and User Experience design: A Bidirectional Approach, in…
  22. … to LX or to the process of LX design in LIDT. With sister disciplines leaning…
  23. … Kimmons’ Color Theory in Experience design, a chapter that considers an aspect…
  24. … Entitled, Methods of User Centered design and Evaluation for Learning designers,…
  25. Secondly, although learning designers are applying methods and processes of UCD…
  26. … LX-focused workflow for the systematic design of physical—not digital—game-based…
  27. … education, learning and instructional design, educational technology, psychology,…
  28. … exploring an assortment of models and design frameworks for LX. Drawing from…
  29. … serves as an application of UX design methods to the design of a visual learning…
  30. The chapter Learning Experience design: Challenges for Novice designers follows…
  31. … Paradigms, and Theories of LX design
  32. … Theoretical, methodological, and design implications. In D. Jonasssen & S. Land…
  33. … Dickson-Deane, C., & Liu, M. Z. (2014). designing CMS courses from a pedagogical…
  34. 2.2. Models and design Frameworks for LX
  35. … multiplicity of perspectives learning designers must consider when seeking to…
  36. Jonassen, D. H. (2000). Toward a design theory of problem solving. Educational…
  37. 2.3. LX design-in-Use
  38. … the intersection of learning design, UX, HCI, and associated disciplines for…
  39. … premise that the complexity of designing for learning with technology cannot…
  40. … chapters that relay cases of LX design-in-use. By design-in-use, we refer to…
  41. … Observations to Improve Online Course design: A Case Example and “How-to”…
  42. … LX of connecting theory with design and evaluating not only hedonic and perceptual…
  43. In the chapter Participatory design and Co-design—the Case of a MOOC on Public…
  44. … (2010b). Preparing Instructional designers for Game-Based Learning: Part 2.…
  45. In the next chapter, The design Implementation Framework: Guiding Principles…
  46. … as the tools that comprise the designed intervention (e.g., networks, computers,…

Methods, Paradigms, and Theories of LX Design

  1. … paradigms, and theories related to LX design. The chapters in this section illustrate…

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. … interaction--Part 210: Human-centred design for interactive systems (ISO Standard…
  2. … Activity theory as a framework for designing constructivist learning environments.…
  3. … autism spectrum disorders. The design target of this scenario was a tool that…
  4. For example, a learning designer developing a course in a LMS can benefit from…
  5. 3. User-Centered design
  6. … into the tools of the learning design trade, including LMSs, video conferencing…
  7. … improvisations are the result of design flaws (cf. Orlikowski, 1990; Grudin,…
  8. … ethnography can support thinking about design from activity theory and distributed…
  9. … Schmidt, M. (2017). User experience design. In R. E. West (Ed.), Foundations…
  10. … use of ethnographic methods in design and evaluation. In M. Helander, T. K.…
  11. … the experience and informing design. International Journal of Social and Organizational…
  12. … methodologies can be used in a learning design context. These can be applied…
  13. For example, learning designers developing a course in an LMS often incorporate…
  14. … evaluator is insufficient for making design inferences. Multiple experts should…
  15. … prototyping is an approach to design that emerged in the 1980s in engineering…
  16. In learning design, the CW is particularly valuable when working in teams that…
  17. … with the field of instructional design and provided specific examples of how…
  18. … literature that has focused on designing for learning with and through these…
  19. … An alternative instructional design strategy. Educational Technology Research…
  20. … wireframes is that they allow designers to present layouts to stakeholders,…
  21. Aligning designs with users' mental models is important for effective UX design.…
  22. … (1995). SunWeb: User interface design for Sun Microsystem's internal Web. Computer…
  23. … field of Learning/Instructional design, further clarifications, and additional…
  24. … they are able to provide the designer useful detail about contexts, needs, and…
  25. … actually do. In order to assist designers, the evaluator also provides reasons…
  26. … commonly occurs early in the design process after paper prototyping. It allows…
  27. … schools that was created by novice designers in an introductory learning design
  28. For learning designers developing online courses, established quality metrics…
  29. For example, a learning designer planning to create a learning object using an…
  30. … architecture and instructional design. Educational Psychology Review, (10),…
  31. … prototyping: The fast and easy way to design and refine user interfaces. Morgan…
  32. … be directly manipulated by a designer (van Merriënboer & Ayres, 2005) through…
  33. … Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The…
  34. … (2002). Usability and instructional design heuristics for e-learning evaluation.…
  35. design team objectives: What you ideally want users to accomplish in order to…
  36. … prototyping used to inform the design and development of many different kinds…
  37. … R. V., & Te’eni, D. (1994). designing information technology to support distributed…
  38. … interfaces that have been visually designed such that they closely resemble…
  39. … conceptual model for evaluation and design. Proceedings of HCI international…
  40. Tullis, T. S. (1985). designing a menu-based interface to an operating system.…
  41. … UCD have implications for the design of learning environments. While the field…
  42. … virtual reality intervention designed to teach adaptive skills for adults with…
  43. … participants suggests to the designer distinct pages that can be created (e.g.,…
  44. Learning designers do not frequently have access to large numbers of learners…
  45. … contexts can be useful in the design of digital environments for learning. However,…
  46. … useful evaluation method in the design of interactive learning systems (cf.…
  47. … gaming principles: An educational design research approach. Interdisciplinary…
  48. … user interviews. Interaction design Foundation. https://edtechbooks.org/-PRHn
  49. … also have ramifications for the design and development of learning technologies.…
  50. … load theory and instructional design: Recent developments. Educational Psychologist,…
  51. … work independently to review the design of an interface against a predetermined…
  52. From the perspective of learning design, eye-tracking and EEG-based user testing…
  53. … and prototypes, the learning design process becomes iterative, dynamic, and…
  54. … technology: Understanding the front-end design of an online program at a brick-and-mortar…
  55. … analyzed and learning interventions designed to address those needs. Assessing…
  56. … framework for analyzing and redesigning work. Ergonomics, 43(7), 960–974.
  57. … In the field of instructional design, others have embraced and extended Nielsen’s…
  58. Evaluation Methodologies, design Phases, and Data Sources
  59. … (Eds.), User-centered system design: New perspective on human computer interaction…
  60. Gathering data to design and develop digital environments for learning is an…
  61. … especially helpful for learning design because it provides a framework to understand…
  62. … Eye tracking in user experience design (pp. 81–110). Morgan Kaufmann.
  63. … ethnography can be applied in learning design is in the development of learner…
  64. … example, imagine that a learning designer has received approval on a wireframe…
  65. … clear or may not belong to a designated pile of cards. In a closed card sort,…
  66. … key to avoiding and remediating design flaws. HCI seeks to understand the interaction…
  67. … applications fail: Problems in the design and evaluation of organizational interfaces.…
  68. … effective instructional/learning design of learning materials (hereafter referred…
  69. One potential pitfall of any design process occurs when designers create systems…
  70. … cognitive load theory and its design implications for e-learning. Educational…
  71. … requirements (a) help learning designers avoid the pitfall of applying ready-made…
  72. … methodological tool that helps designers approach design based on the perspective…
  73. For example, a learning designer developing an undergraduate introduction to…
  74. … particularly useful for learning designers creating courses in learning management…
  75. … traction in the field of learning design due to advances in machine learning…
  76. … Methodologies for User-Centered design

Paradigms of Knowledge Production in Human-Computer Interaction: Towards a Framing for Learner Experience (LX) Design

  1. … Smith, K. M. (1996). Instructional design Models. In J. M. Spector (Ed.), Handbook…
  2. Research through design (RtD) a (Zimmerman et al., 2007)
  3. Participatory design (McCarthy & Wright, 2015) and Co-design (Sanders & Stappers,…
  4. … (2018). Changing conceptions of design. In R. A. Reiser & J. V. Dempsey (Eds.),…
  5. Study of design practices (Boling et al., 2017; Boling & Gray, 2014; Gray et…
  6. Boling, E. (2010). The need for design cases: Disseminating design knowledge.…
  7. … researchers, instructors, and designers. To use Schön’s (1990) language of…
  8. design
  9. If design is really already about learning, how can LX designers help, and what…
  10. … Process Language from Instructional design With HCI or UX Methods/Concepts
  11. … F., & Hannafin, M. J. (2005). design-based research and technology-enhanced…
  12. … presence: (a) participatory and co-design approaches, and (b) critical and speculative…
  13. … Core judgments of instructional designers in practice. Performance Improvement…
  14. Parrish, P. (2013). designing for the half-known world: Lessons for instructional…
  15. … ’jofish'. (2005). Reflective design. CC '05; Proceedings of the 4th decennial…
  16. … (2016). A Feminist HCI approach to designing postpartum technologies: When I…
  17. … (2013). Speculative everything: design, fiction, and social dreaming. MIT Press.…
  18. … & Stolterman, E. (2012). The design way: Intentional change in an unpredictable…
  19. … Investigating slowness as a frame to design longer-term experiences with personal…
  20. … waves or paradigms. Consider the design of a tool to encourage communication…
  21. … reframing of HCI outcomes as being designed has shifted priorities from experimentally…
  22. … Clinton, & M. W. Tracey (Ed.), The design of learning experience (pp. 199–213).…
  23. … aligned with DBR, the aims and design knowledge gained through RtD varies substantially…
  24. … While multiple forms of research design are common, both in education and in…
  25. … Evenson, S. (2007). Research through design as a method for interaction design
  26. … Holtzblatt, K. (1998). Contextual design: Defining customer-centered systems.…
  27. User-centered approaches to design have experienced rapid adoption in industry…
  28. … disciplinary boundaries in interaction design. Interactions, 16(5), 48–51.…
  29. … & Olivier, P. (2013). Making design probes work. CHI '13: Proceedings of the…
  30. … is "critical" about critical design? CHI '13: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference…
  31. … distinct from, yet related to UX design practice. HCI scholarship includes conceptual…
  32. … (2012). Universal methods of design: 100 ways to research complex problems,…
  33. … citizens: The view from participatory design. CHI '16: Proceedings of the 2016…
  34. … innovation: Create new thinking by design. MIT Press. https://edtechbooks.org/-cuJW
  35. Reigeluth, C. M. (2013). Instructional design theories and models: An overview…
  36. … principles for instructional design. Educational Technology Research and Development:…
  37. … (2015). Judgment and instructional design: How ID practitioners work in practice.…
  38. … Co-creation and the new landscapes of design. Codesign, 4(1), 5–18. https://edtechbooks.org/-ZZq
  39. Given the modern awareness of UX design, particularly in the rise of design approaches…
  40. … J., & Stolterman, E. (2013). design research at CHI and its applicability to…
  41. … '18: Proceedings of the 2018 designing interactive systems conference (pp. 361–372).…
  42. … Proceedings of the 3rd conference on designing interactive systems: Processes,…
  43. … (2016). Pushing the limits of design fiction: The case for fictional research…
  44. … future Learner Experience (LX) design role. As is already the case with UX design,…
  45. Blythe, M. (2014). Research through design fiction: Narrative in real and imaginary…
  46. Brown, T. (2009). Change by design: How design thinking transforms organizations…
  47. … transdisciplinary learner experience (LX) designer role, attempting to align—or…
  48. While UX design is the most dominant job title umbrella relating to human-centered…
  49. … Inscribing ethics and values in designs for learning: a problematic. Educational…
  50. … international handbook of participatory design. Routledge.
  51. design-based research (Wang & Hannafin, 2005) + design cases (Boling, 2010)
  52. … (1996). Reclaiming instructional design. Educational Technology Research and…
  53. … Definition of Learner Experience (LX) design
  54. … participation in experience-centered design. MIT Press.
  55. Schön, D. A. (1990). The design process. In V. A. Howard (Ed.), Varieties of…
  56. … prototypes as manifestations of design ideas. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human…
  57. … conference companion publication on designing interactive systems (pp. 111–115).…
  58. … Connections to Relevant Instructional design Scholarship and Concepts
  59. … practitioners' conception of design methods. CHI '16: Proceedings of the 2016…
  60. … interaction studies in system design. In R. M. Baecker, J. Grudin, W. A. S.…
  61. Branch, R. M. (2009). Instructional design: The ADDIE approach. Springer-Verlag.
  62. … E. (2009). What do we make of design? design as a concept in educational technology.…
  63. … Immodest proposals: Research through design and knowledge. CHI '15: Proceedings…
  64. … I come from a combination of design, education, and HCI traditions, and view…
  65. … attending to overarching notions of design knowledge and the relationship of…
  66. … this isolation in relation to design terminology and theory). Thus, while the…
  67. Critical design (Bardzell & Bardzell, 2013), speculative design (Dunne & Raby,…
  68. … human-computer interaction (HCI), and design, with particular areas of focus…
  69. Martin, R. L. (2009). The design of business: Why design thinking is the next…
  70. … UX across a range of potential design moves. The rich array of methods used…
  71. … methodology for creating and improving design theories. In C. Reigeluth (Ed.),…
  72. Boling, E., & Gray, C. M. (2014). design: The topic that should not be closed.…
  73. … Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on designing Interactive Systems (pp. 725–734).…
  74. … Vargas, S. (2019). Participatory design and the future of rural LGBTQ communities.…
  75. … The Rise of Learner Experience design - EdSurge News. EdSurge. https://edtechbooks.org/-wwV

Theories of Change in Learning Experience (LX) Design

  1. … next section we present a tool designed to solve a very different learning challenge.…
  2. … theory of change for learning design, we need to have answers to three key questions:
  3. … testing. As learning experience designers, the focus on theory prompts us to…
  4. In the context of LX design, we like to illustrate the Theory of Change through…
  5. … misleading impression that UX and LX design processes are linear and tidy. They…
  6. … (https://edtechbooks.org/-Hfv). Motion Math designs games to engage students…
  7. In the case of UX design, theories from the field of user research, including…
  8. LX designers seek to help learners by understanding how they learn and help teachers…
  9. … result of this early testing, the designers developed a brief tutorial showing…
  10. The design brief based on this theory of change featured an interactive website…
  11. … questions that are asked by LX designers, as well as the iterative designs and…
  12. … sought feedback on how their designs were received by the target learners. The…
  13. Hypothesis testing is key to designing impactful interventions and can be continued…
  14. … we have observed that novice designers tend to favor intuitive outcomes of engagement,…
  15. … potential, Adauto and Klein planned to design an engaging smartphone app that…
  16. … powerful early-stage tool for LX designers. In particular, before one has a…
  17. Sorcar’s design process aimed at testing a clear theory of change: that to…
  18. LX design is similarly informed by theories, but, in this case, researchers and…
  19. … learn should drive the process of designing learning experiences. Those theories…
  20. Gee, J. P. (2005). Learning by design: Good video games as learning machines.…
  21. 3. LX design in Motion Math: Bounce
  22. For those designing educational solutions for learning challenges, this chapter…
  23. 4. LX design in TeachAids: Prevention Begins With Me
  24. … with students in the Learning, design & Technology (LDT) master's program at…
  25. 2.1. Theories Driving LX design and UX design
  26. … contrasts between user experience design (UX design) and learning experience…
  27. 2.2. Key Questions for LX design
  28. … screenshots illustrate how the design team for Prevention Begins With Me leveraged…
  29. … could fall short, if not well-designed. A look back at the theory of change…
  30. … assumptions, driving modifications in design that resulted in products enjoying…
  31. … networked technology facilitated the design team’s efforts to gather data…
  32. … a topic, it is important that designers choose a range of examples that avoid…

Flow Theory and Learning Experience Design in Gamified Learning Environments

  1. Multiple design elements were included to support flow theory and gamified learning.…
  2. … application of theory towards interface design is an important element in how…
  3. … the role of learning experience design (LXD). That is, how the interface design
  4. … initiative called the Universal design for Learning (UDL) to support teachers…
  5. The design of the online PD used additional gamification elements (badging, leaderboard,…
  6. … (2015). Professional development: designing initiatives to meet the needs of…
  7. … Arifin, Y., & Rosalin, K. (2017). design and development game Chinese language…
  8. … module. The PD was purposely designed with segmentation in mind, allowing for…
  9. 3. design Case of Flow Theory and LXD
  10. … purposes of gamification is to use design principles from games to make learning…
  11. … (a) Introduction to Universal design for Learning, (b) Engagement – The Why…
  12. 3.5. Course design Using Flow Theory and Gamified Learning
  13. 2.2. Learning Experience design and Flow Theory in Game-Based Learning
  14. Additionally, PD design should be centered around a gamified design that provides…
  15. … (2011). Using flow theory to design video games as experimental stimuli. Human…
  16. … of Flow in Learning Experience design (LXD)
  17. … applications of UDL to lesson design, and helpful technology tools that support…
  18. … of learning and instructional design technology: Historical roots and current…
  19. … and a practicing instructional designer, the first author is often faced with…
  20. … meaningful engagement: A framework for design and research of gamified information…
  21. … interaction elements of interface design.
  22. Boling, E. (2010). The need for design cases: Disseminating design knowledge.…
  23. … and models describe how to best design interfaces in ways that supports constructivist…
  24. … section that follows, we detail a design case that describes how the principles…
  25. The professional development's design sought to increase faculty’s engagement…
  26. The design case took place at a southeastern urban research university with approximately…
  27. … In doing so, the PD interface design suggests the different external motivators…
  28. … faculty are now encouraged to design and migrate their courses to digital formats.…
  29. … engagement, using flow theory to design the course may be one way to offset…
  30. … construct through learning experience design allows the learner to know what…
  31. … its implications for interface design. In terms of the latter, the chapter will…
  32. Although the design case highlights how flow theory could be applied to a gamified…
  33. … The fourth requirement of flow design includes merging of action and awareness.…

Color Theory in Experience Design

  1. Beyond this need for designers to meaningfully communicate with clients, color…
  2. … that the color takes up in the design should be very small and offset with plenty…
  3. … considerations mentioned above, most designers will begin color-use in a project…
  4. … (n.d.). The color system. Material design. https://edtechbooks.org/-Cqk
  5. Various tools are available to designers that provide color scheme examples,…
  6. … variation. Sometimes, however, less design complexity is desirable. In the provided…
  7. … Homer, B. D. (2012). Emotional design in multimedia learning. Journal of Educational…
  8. … understand common notations present in design and authoring software. For instance,…
  9. … considerations on how to use color in UX design, and (d) concrete information…
  10. … Reichelt, M. (2015). Emotional design in multimedia learning: Differentiation…
  11. As a rule of thumb, many designers propose following what is called the 60-30-10…
  12. … work is still needed to help designers better understand issues of contextual…
  13. … systematic ways; among UX and LX designers, color is generally approached in…
  14. … actual, embedded craft of UX and LX design is a different matter. For this reason,…
  15. … fourth, to use colors well in any design effort, the designer must not only…
  16. … the accent. This allows for the design to show interesting variation while also…
  17. … affective domain as educators and designers have struggled anew with how to…
  18. … these suggestions, UX and LX designers can create designs that increase motivation…
  19. … If you want a simpler, safer design, go with a monochromatic type, and drag…
  20. … you want to create with your design. Then, upload the image to Adobe Color via…
  21. … D., & Um, E. (2014). Emotional design in multimedia learning: Effects of shape…
  22. … are easy to use in complicated designs to provide a sense of cohesion and uniformity.…
  23. … matches the other blues in the design. If the woman’s sweater was orange or…
  24. … when, and why of color-use in UX design is difficult to come by, and the problem…
  25. … variations of the same website design in Figure 6. Which of the four color variations…
  26. … how this relates to UX and LX design, consider the password prompt interfaces…
  27. Similarly, suppose you are designing a learning app for young children on how…
  28. … contrast is important in all designs for aesthetics but is especially important…
  29. … variation, and this means that UX designers should use this principle to intentionally…
  30. But designers must also often counterbalance their own and their clients’ everyday…
  31. … from soft pink to blood red in a design would likely impact users’ feelings…
  32. … employing positive emotion cueing, designers can help increase mental effort…

Models and Design Frameworks for LX

  1. … exploring an assortment of models and design frameworks for LX. Drawing from…

Sociotechnical-Pedagogical Usability for Designing and Evaluating Learner Experience in Technology-Enhanced Environments

  1. … case library: An educational design research approach. Interdisciplinary Journal…
  2. … pedagogical factors in learning design. The pedagogical dimension involves instruction…
  3. … the perspective of learning, design of HHCI can have a critical impact on learning…
  4. … I. (2015). Digital didactical designs: Teaching and learning in CrossActionSpaces.…
  5. … Principles of sociotechnical design revisited. Human Relations, 40(3), 153–162.
  6. … technological usability during the design of learning technologies introduces…
  7. … 1, we now turn to establishing design recommendations (Table 3). Collectively,…
  8. Increasingly, researchers of learning design are applying methods from usability…
  9. … “The requirements of interfaces designed to support learning are different…
  10. Schmidt, M. (2014). designing for learning in a three-dimensional virtual learning…
  11. … L. (2020). Building a holistic design identity through integrated studio education.…
  12. … learning technologies for effective designs (1st ed.). Routledge.
  13. design recommendations for supporting learner experience in active student-centered…
  14. … person-technology relationships, learning design must consider not only the…
  15. … and task analysis for interface design (1st ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  16. … Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches (4th…
  17. … because it focuses primarily on the design of learning tasks within a user interface,…
  18. … or teacher (or instructional designer) perspective on how to describe and distribute…
  19. … principles of sociotechnical design. Human Relations, 9(8), 783–792.
  20. Typically, instructors, instructional designers, and learning designers do not…
  21. … objectiveness, match between designer and learner models
  22. … recognition in the field of learning design of the value of human-computer interaction…
  23. … (2018). Conducting educational design research (2nd ed.). Routledge.
  24. … (2020b). User experience (re)design and evaluation of a self-guided, mobile…
  25. … Schmidt, M. (2018). User experience design. In R. E. West (Ed.). Foundations…
  26. … beneficial in identifying potential design flaws when evaluating technology-mediated…
  27. … Dickson-Deane, C., & Liu, M. Z. (2014). designing CMS courses from a pedagogical…
  28. … sociotechnical approach to systems design. Requirements Engineering, 5, 125–133.
  29. … (2020a). Methods of user centered design and evaluation for learning designers.…

Learning Experience Design: Challenges for Novice Designers

  1. … (2016). Examining instructional design principles applied by experienced designers…
  2. Ill-structured problems, such as learning design problems, are by nature without…
  3. Cross, N. (2007). From a design science to a design discipline: Understanding…
  4. … principles, organize and connect design-problem and relevant information by…
  5. … also calls for a goal-oriented design (e.g., a design that accounts for the…
  6. … (2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part II: A history…
  7. As you generate and solve design problems, define and empathize with learners…
  8. … foundations of instructional design: A North American view. In R. D., Tennyson,…
  9. design
  10. … foundation for instructional design: Four pillars of practice, Educational Technology,…
  11. The Novice Story: How Novice designers Problem-Solve Learning designs
  12. … Adams, R. S. (2012). The informed design teaching and learning matrix. Journal…
  13. … solve problems: A handbook for designing problem-solving learning environments.…
  14. … guide for novice researchers: design and development research methods. Proceedings…
  15. … caricature, we can see how the designer conceptualizes the design as a single,…
  16. … (2009). "Teaching" instructional design expertise: Strategies to support students'…
  17. … Stepich, D. (2005). Instructional design Expertise: How Will We Know It When…
  18. Expert designers are cautious and intentional in their progression toward solution…
  19. In the story, our expert designer conceptualizes an array of different factors…
  20. The Expert Story: How Expert designers Problem-Solve Learning designs
  21. … Emery, C. D. (1995). Instructional design expertise: A cognitive model of design.…
  22. … our caricature of the novice designer (Figure 1) the ability to focus only on…
  23. … DODDEL model to teach serious game design to novice designers. Proceedings…
  24. … Inside the black box: Making design decisions for instruction. British Journal…
  25. When generating design problems test your underlying assumptions and add sophistication…
  26. … personal goals may challenge novice designers.
  27. Jonassen, D. H. (2008). Instructional design as design problem solving: An iterative…
  28. … intellectual content of instructional design. Journal of Instructional Development,…
  29. … Miller, C. (2009). Role-based design: A contemporary framework for innovation…
  30. … imagination and empathy by the designers (Parrish, 2009), and integration of…
  31. Learning experience design, defined as designing learning as a human-centered…
  32. … the responsibility of the LX designer is considerable. LX designers must identify,…
  33. Cross, N. (2004). Expertise in design: An overview. design Studies, 25(5), 427–441.
  34. … taxonomy for instructional systems design, evaluation, and research. Training…
  35. At heart, learning design is an ill-structured problem-solving activity (Ertmer…
  36. … problem‐solving efforts of instructional design novices. Performance Improvement…
  37. Novice designers exhibit difficulty identifying and defining meaningful problems…
  38. Jonassen, D. H. (1997). Instructional design models for well-structured and ill-structured…
  39. … paramount. Shifting the focus of design may pose challenges in identifying and…
  40. … is so good about user-centered design? Documenting the effect of usability sessions…
  41. … (Figure 1) and expert (Figure 2) designer, followed by a discussion that highlights…
  42. … important are goals that guide the design to ensure that learners find meaning…
  43. … considerations with learner-centered design, shifting focus from instruction…
  44. … traditional field of learning design, Instructional design (ID), over hundreds…
  45. … without this foundation, novice designers find generating solutions difficult.…
  46. … principles. In addition, novice designers are encouraged to contextualize information…
  47. … definition of learning experience design as a practice of designing learning…
  48. Lawson, B. (2012). What designers know. Routledge.
  49. … principle-based model of instructional design: A new way of thinking about and…
  50. … to challenges facing novice LX designers, the goal of this chapter is to (a)…
  51. LX designers do not fully determine or control the learning experience. Rather,…
  52. … R. S., & Emery, C. D. (1995). designer thinking: How novices and experts think…
  53. … Implications for Instructional design. Performance and Instruction, 30(6), 13–17.
  54. … Wrigley, C. (2018). Facilitating design thinking: A comparison of design expertise.…
  55. New design situations will introduce variations that challenge our assumptions…
  56. … define, and practice learning design has changed over the decades in relation…
  57. … cognitive strategies to instructional design. Performance Improvement, 41(7),…
  58. … embedded in. As you generate a design solution, recognize, define, and design
  59. In the expert narrative, our designer spends a considerable amount of time establishing…
  60. Novice designers in the learning domain commonly exhibit difficulties understanding…
  61. … (2014). Preparing instructional designers: Traditional and emerging perspectives.…
  62. … features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly,…
  63. … think about what they must do as designers, but what kind of designer they want…
  64. … readily available to the novice designer. One particular learning method recommended…
  65. … added challenges to the novice designers regarding their prior assumptions and…
  66. 2.4. design
  67. In our expert caricature, the designer is able to process and structure the problem…
  68. … of research on instructional design expertise distinguishes some fundamental…
  69. … relation to the learners' needs. designing for dynamic, flexible, multiple pathways…
  70. … methodological beliefs of instructional design faculty and professionals. Educational…
  71. Another challenge for novice LX designers is mentally organizing and selecting…
  72. … Defining Learning Experience design
  73. When problem-solving, draw design solutions from a wide array of principles contextualized…
  74. … (2018). Changing conceptions of design. In R. A. Reiser & J. V. Dempsey (Eds.),…
  75. … Y. (2008). How instructional design experts use knowledge and experience to…
  76. Under LXD, the focus of design is the learning experience rather than the learning…
  77. Learning Experience design (LXD) is an attempt to integrate design practice from…
  78. … Sloep, P. (2002). How expert designers design. Performance Improvement Quarterly,…
  79. … misconceptions. For example, the novice designer projects their own experience…
  80. … experience: The user-centered design for the web and beyond. Pearson Education.
  81. … thinking in the early phases of the design process. International Journal of…
  82. … (1992). What do instructional designers actually do? An initial investigation…
  83. Rowland, G. (1993). designing and instructional design. Educational Technology…
  84. In LXD, the role of designers is to provide flexible and dynamic learning contexts…
  85. … principles for instructional design. Educational Technology Research and Technology,…
  86. LXD requires designers to create learning experiences, defined as experiences…
  87. ID focuses on the design of learning tools or materials around subject matter,…
  88. Novice designers lack a clear understanding of the problem and they process the…
  89. … contextual learning goals, the designer must be attuned to the complex and dynamic…
  90. … become experts in LXD novice designers need to shift from learning about design

The Role of Needs Assessment to Validate Contextual Factors Related to User Experience Design Practices

  1. … Empathy in distance learning design practice. TechTrends, 61(5), 486–493.
  2. … heuristics to guide instructional designers as they utilize this framework to…
  3. Contextual design is referenced in UX design and human-computer interaction literature.…
  4. Instructional designers are called to make decisions at various times throughout…
  5. … Effective use of instructional design and simulated learning environments to…
  6. … assessment can guide the instructional designer on how to impose boundaries…
  7. Most instructional designers find themselves being presented with the needs of…
  8. 4. A Systems Approach to UX design
  9. Jonassen, D. H. (2000). Toward a design theory of problem solving. Educational…
  10. … in learning and instructional design. Educational Technology Research and Development,…
  11. Parrish, P. (2006). design as storytelling. TechTrends, 50(4), 72–82.
  12. … practice. Training instructional designers on aligning needs assessment with…
  13. Churchman, C. W. (1965). On the design of educational systems. Audiovisual Instruction,…
  14. … significantly benefit the instructional design experience by helping instructional…
  15. Stefaniak, J. (2020). The utility of design thinking to promote systemic instructional…
  16. … What it means for instructional design. Journal of Applied Instructional design,…
  17. … Hutchinson, A. (2019). Empathic design: imagining the cognitive and emotional…
  18. … Tillman (Eds.), Instructional design: Principles and applications (pp. 17–43).…
  19. … traditional approaches to UX design noted by Battarbee and Koskinen (2005) includes…
  20. … Contextual Analysis in User Experience design
  21. … co-experience approach to user experience design proposed by Battarbee and Koskinen…
  22. Jonassen, D. H. (2012). designing for decision making. Educational Technology…
  23. … interpreting user experience in design identified by Battarbee and Koskinen…
  24. … interpretation of user experiences in design practices. We then present a systems…
  25. … other aspects of user experience design, these ever-changing contextual factors…
  26. … theory has led instructional designers to consider problem-solving within the…
  27. … Koskinen’s (2005) suggestion that UX design practices need to facilitate a…
  28. … meaning is leveraged in user design practices. The field of instructional design
  29. … Smith, K. M. (2014). Instructional design models. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill,…
  30. … Kalman, H., & Kemp, J. (2012). designing effective instruction (7th ed.). John…
  31. … desired states, the instructional designer must consider the perceived needs,…
  32. … written in the instructional design field recognizing the impact that contextual…
  33. … early framework for interaction designers. Proceedings of DIS 2000: designing…
  34. … socio-cultural issues into instructional design. Multicultural Education & Technology…
  35. To help instructional designers fully consider contextual factors that may influence…
  36. Norman, D. (2013). The design of everyday things. Basic Books.
  37. While the term UX design has only recently been adopted in the instructional…
  38. … (2011). Contexts of instructional design. The Journal of Applied Instructional…
  39. … user-centered to participatory design approaches. In J. Frascara (Ed.), design
  40. Instructional design as a field has been greatly influenced by general systems…
  41. … Interpreting User Experience in design Practices
  42. The instructional design process requires instructional designers to undertake…
  43. … with the learning environment designed in the UX design space. The outputs identified…
  44. … component of the instructional design process (Branch & Dousay, 2015; Dick et…
  45. … Ragan, T. J. (2005). Instructional design (3rd ed.). Wiley.
  46. … (2015). Survey of instructional design models (5th ed.). Association for Educational…
  47. … Schmidt, M. (2018). User experience design. In R. E. West (Ed.), Foundations…
  48. … experience as interaction. Codesign, 1(1), 5–18.
  49. … needs assessment as instructional designers validate contextual factors in their…
  50. … on UX strategies early in the design process. Additional time is allocated at…
  51. As the instructional design field focuses on ways that UX design practices can…
  52. … place within activities such as design is inherently connected to ill-structured,…
  53. … Contextual Factors in User Experience design Practices
  54. Jonassen, D. H. (2008). Instructional design as design problem solving: An iterative…
  55. … to exploring how instructional designers leverage contextual factors from the…
  56. … of learning and instructional design technology: The past, present, and future…
  57. … L. O. (2009). The systematic design of instruction (8th ed.). Pearson.
  58. … Contextual Factors in User Experience design Practices
  59. … characterize contextual analysis in user design as adhering to the following…
  60. … phenomenological study of instructional designers making instructional strategy…
  61. … J. McDonald & R. West (Eds.), design for Learning. EdTechBooks. https://edtechbooks.org/-sdko
  62. … resources allocated to the project, design team personnel, known learner characteristics,…
  63. … importance of the instructional designer to provide an opportunity for the user…
  64. … the user throughout the entire design process to address issues with relevancy,…
  65. … problem. When the instructional designer considers the contextual factors likely…
  66. … contextual factors in user experience design practices. We intend to help instructional…
  67. … Context‐sensitive instructional design models: A response to design research,…
  68. … practitioners’ conception of design methods. Proceedings of the 2016 CHI conference…
  69. … anticipating experience while designing online courses. British Journal of Educational…
  70. … result of this user experience design approach. To generate a realistic set…
  71. … Beyer, H. (2014). Contextual design: evolved. Synthesis Lectures on Human-Centered…
  72. … review of what instructional designers do: Questions answered and questions…
  73. … environmental decisions for instructional designers as change agents. Educational…

The Design Implementation Framework: Guiding Principles for the Redesign of a Reading Comprehension Intelligent Tutoring System

  1. … series of iterative cycles of design, feedback, and evaluation. As DIF highlights,…
  2. … complete one full “cycle” of the design Implementation Framework, but will…
  3. … Snow, 2002). We developed and designed two types of metacognitive prompts to…
  4. … they can provide instructional designers greater confidence in the efficacy…
  5. … the system that were less about design and more about growing pains of the system.…
  6. Phases of the design Implementation Framework
  7. 2. design Implementation Framework
  8. … & McNamara, D. S. (2018). The design implementation framework: Iterative design
  9. … feedback cycles within the larger design cycle encouraged us to continually…
  10. … extensive contributions by the lead designers and programmers: Amy Johnson,…
  11. … were able to offer responsive design (e.g., mobile compatibility). Although…
  12. … These results suggest that our redesign of iSTART addressed end-user feedback…
  13. The first phase of DIF requires designers to define and evaluate the problem.…
  14. … system that includes responsive design, modernized aesthetics, and clearer dashboards.…
  15. … versions were built based on design research between our research team, teacher-partners,…
  16. DIF differs from design sequences such as ADDIE and DBIR, both in terms of specific…
  17. … 2015; Lin et al., 2014). The design Implementation Framework (DIF; Stone et…
  18. … existing methods of instructional design—such as the Analysis, design, Development,…
  19. After these rounds of design and user experience with the prototype, we hard-coded…
  20. … iSTART in the new responsive design (iSTART-3) version or the previous version…
  21. … their class time. Even the best-designed learner tool may cease to have an impact…
  22. … next phases of DIF: ideation and design. We began ideation by informally examining…
  23. … of the interface in need of redesign as well as to allow the teachers to join…
  24. design and User Experience
  25. … high-impact tool for instructional designers.
  26. Luckin, R., & Cukurova, M. (2019). designing educational technologies in the…
  27. … identical colored-coded progress bar design and the ability to open these aggregate…
  28. … B. H., & Sabelli, N. (2013). design-based implementation research: An emerging…
  29. … emerging framework for instructional designers that connects research, design,…
  30. … found the overall graphics and design of iSTART to be outdated. This was not…
  31. … methods to test and refine the designs (e.g., sketches, mockups, paper prototyping,…
  32. … in the context of foundational design approaches, such as ADDIE. We then present…
  33. … methodology for theory-based design of walk-up-and-use interfaces. CHI '90:…
  34. … (2006). Information dashboard design: The effective visual communication of…
  35. … we also began ideation for redesign of the teacher interface. The teacher interface…
  36. … learning, but other aspects of design can help or hinder learning gains. Craig…
  37. … learn. However, instructional designers must also recognize the need to focus…
  38. … Y. (2004). Pedagogical agent design: The impact of agent realism, gender, ethnicity,…
  39. … this chapter, we introduced the design Implementation Framework and demonstrated…
  40. … considerations in educational technology design. IGI Global. https://edtechbooks.org/-JBZd
  41. … guide additional iterations of redesign of our ITS, iSTART. Interactive Strategy…

From Engagement to User Experience: A Theoretical Perspective Towards Immersive Learning

  1. … (2019). For the many, not the one: designing low-cost joint VR experiences for…
  2. … learning experience is primarily designed as a passive one (i.e., virtual tours…
  3. … good usability practices and design can improve immediate feedback on learning…
  4. … (2012). Virtual reality in interior design education: Enhanced outcomes through…
  5. … conceptualize its role in learning design. Presence helps to achieve situatedness,…
  6. … system variables on architectural design comprehension. In Bourdakis, V., &…
  7. … inconsistencies and even bad interface design. External motivators, more commonly…
  8. … technology in the form of VR because design students learn without an actual…
  9. … undue influence of poor interface design which reduces satisfaction and ultimately…
  10. … & Reed, D. (2002). Funology: designing enjoyment. In L. Terveen (Ed.), Conference…
  11. … reality/s pace visualization in design education: The VR-desktop initiative.…
  12. … for VR. According to learning design, the content and context must be defined…
  13. … first—the spatial disciplines where design and spatial relationships are central…
  14. … J. (2013). Which instructional design models are educators using to design virtual…
  15. … Computer Aided Architectural design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Beijing, China,…
  16. … Association of Computer-Aided design in Architecture (ACADIA), Halifax, Nova…
  17. design Explorations in the iLab (left) and the IEL (right)
  18. … Incorporating learner experience into the design of multimedia instruction.…
  19. … technical usability with the proper design of activities should additionally…
  20. … C., & Erlandson, B. E. (2012). design for learning in virtual worlds. Routledge.
  21. … learned in the first years of design education—composition and exploration…
  22. … first example from architecture. design students often find themselves working…

Intentional Learning Design for Educational Games: A Workflow Supporting Novices and Experts

  1. … Krathwohl, 2001). More experienced GBL designers could work from a framework…
  2. … their intellectual goals. A well-designed, educational game can engage learners…
  3. … who were not involved in the design process. This development stage is the perfect…
  4. 3.8. Align Learning Content with designed Mechanics
  5. … “overwhelmed by the plethora of design choices and level of complexity entailed…
  6. … environments: Learning experience design challenges and opportunities. OSTI.…
  7. Weitze, C. L. (2016). designing for learning and play: The smiley model as a…
  8. … Hutchinson, A. (2019). Empathic design: Imagining the cognitive and emotional…
  9. … (2011). Making the gameplay matter: designing modern educational tabletop games.…
  10. … J. (2017). Using formal game design methods to embed learning outcomes into…
  11. … absolutely crucial step in GBL design within an LXD conceptual framework is…
  12. … The six facets of serious game design: A methodology enhanced by our design
  13. … foregrounding empathy in her design. She believes that, if the children have…
  14. … player activity model for game design and analysis. ACE '16: Proceedings of…
  15. … The dawn of learner experience design. ITNOW, 58(3), 52–53. https://edtechbooks.org/-MJN
  16. … emotional as well as cognitive design. Explicit linking of pedagogically-founded…
  17. … participate directly in game design, Maria has previously had good results and…
  18. … become directly involved in the co-design of their own learning activities.…
  19. … Best practices for an effective design and evaluation of serious games. International…
  20. … where appropriate, empathetic design, "safe" and relevant learning environments
  21. … confident with educational game design, an ambitious and complex example involving…
  22. Playfulness is defined as a core design principle for increasing the emotional…
  23. … learners on the specifics of the design and, where possible, directly involving…
  24. … principles or opportunities for LX designers (Floor, 2018; Jagger, 2016; Raybourn,…
  25. … synthesizes elements from existing GBL design models (Catalano et al., 2014;…
  26. GBL designers working with adults or older children can improve their learner-focus…
  27. … increasing emphasis on emotional design across many fields, reflected in a range…
  28. … (2015). A model to analyze and design educational games with pedagogical foundations.…
  29. … parameters, some flexibility exists. designers must consider questions such…
  30. … reflection, support/guidance, emotional design, and authentic linking between…
  31. … outcome and every next step in the design process, including the choice of your…
  32. … and goes beyond instructional design).
  33. … common potential weaknesses in GBL design (summarised and analysed in Table…
  34. Empathetic design, emphasis on learner’s intrinsic motivation(s), progressive…
  35. … Elements of learning experience design. Boxes and Arrows. https://edtechbooks.org/-AJSA
  36. … also contributes to emotional design (Park & Lim, 2019) and is highlighted as…
  37. … Significant overlap exists between designing for situated learning, reinforcing…
  38. … Player and learner experience design: Can we design for both? CHItaly 2015 Proceedings…
  39. … strong pedagogical as well as game design foundations. Shaded boxes in Figure…
  40. … interdisciplinary expertise spanning game design, interaction design, and pedagogy…
  41. … S. S. (2016). Digital games, design, and learning: A systematic review and meta-analysis.…
  42. … example, there is no point trying to design a collaborative app if the school…
  43. … side-lined) and can help GBL designers to centralize those learning behaviors…
  44. Dinimaharawati, A. (2013). designing educational games on E-learning SMANAS based…
  45. … ideally be closely involved in co-designing their own learning behaviors to…
  46. … is woven into both interaction design within GBL and the affordances of the…
  47. … their overall expertise as GBL designers, and, for existing GBL practitioners,…
  48. Park, T., & Lim, C. (2019). design principles for improving emotional affordances…
  49. … the general principles of their design. In mapping the different interdisciplinary…
  50. … considerations which impact game design within an LXD framework.
  51. … N. (2018). Learning Experience design. https://lxd.org
  52. … of LXD framework to inform GBL design, embracing emotional design, mapping learning…
  53. … e-learning, Jagger (2016) calls this design structure chunking (i.e., learning…
  54. … be maintained through the game design process.
  55. … Essential features of serious games design in higher education: Linking learning…
  56. … Becoming a learning experience designer. DevLearn 2015 Conference. eLearning…
  57. … learners"’ feed into Instructional design activities such as definition and…
  58. Learning experience design (LXD) is an approach that foregrounds learners and…
  59. 3. design Method: A Workflow for Both GBL Novices and Experts

LX Design-in-Use

  1. … chapters that relay cases of LX design-in-use. By design-in-use, we refer to…

Integrating Learner and User Experience Design: A Bidirectional Approach

  1. … Soloway, E. (2000). Model-it: A design retrospective. In M. J. Jacobson & R.…
  2. … courses which would guide the design of the tool; one course focused on writing…
  3. While important in many design contexts, the heterogeneity of learners is especially…
  4. Boling, E. (2010). The need for design cases: Disseminating design knowledge.…
  5. … definition for learner-centered design. In B. Fishman & S. O'Connor-Divelbiss…
  6. … opportunities is increased when LX and UX design remain partitioned. By developing…
  7. … difference between learner-centered design and user-centered design: in the…
  8. As designers adopt a learner-centered approach to design, UX and LX considerations…
  9. In this design case, we describe how a well-known approach within UX design processes…
  10. … Haley, S. R. (2017, February 23). designing better online courses by understanding…
  11. … variety of features that allow designers to create rich educational environments.…
  12. … Massive Open Online Courses: designing for the unknown learner. Teaching in…
  13. … include (a) congruence between designer and learner models, in which the design
  14. … opportunities for Learning Experience designers (LXDs) and User Experience designers…
  15. … Heuristics for User Interface design. Nielsen Norman Group. https://edtechbooks.org/-MAB
  16. Goodwin, K. (2009). designing for the digital age. Wiley Publishing Inc.
  17. … Soloway, E. (2001). Learner-centered design: Reflections and new directions.…
  18. … persona party: Using personas to design for learning at scale. CHI EA '17: Proceedings…
  19. … human-computer interaction. As LX and UX designers prepare conference proposals…
  20. Our two design cases reveal that LXDs and UXDs must consider both learner and…
  21. … K., & Poulymenakou, A. (2002). designing on-line learning courses: Implications…
  22. … approaches into the learning design process. Many instructors are not familiar…
  23. … E. (2009). What do we make of design? design as a concept in educational technology.…
  24. … (Eds.), User centered system design (pp. 31-61). Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates.
  25. … outcome of a learner-centered design approach is tools designed to facilitate…
  26. … backend developer and the UX designer contributed in the implementation phase.…
  27. … people in mind throughout product design. Morgan Kaufmann
  28. … original goal of learner-centered design was to describe how technology-enhanced…
  29. … LXDs partner with faculty to design learner-centered, research-informed online…
  30. … new UX tools into a learning design process, opportunities for reflection provide…
  31. … the origins of learner-centered design and contrast it with user-centered design.…
  32. … a shared referent for future design decision-making. We provide an overview…
  33. … Hay, K. (1994). Learner-centered design: The challenge for HCI in the 21st century.…
  34. … Human-Computer interaction and education: designing for technology-enhanced…
  35. … Soloway, E. (2004). A scaffolding design framework for software to support science…
  36. … have provided feedback on our designs.
  37. 4.2.2. Activity design

Participatory Design and Co-Design—The Case of a MOOC on Public Innovation

  1. … chapter were involved in this design process. The authors are a researcher working…
  2. Participatory design was first defined in Scandinavian literature “as a model…
  3. … order to move forward in the design of the MOOC and identify its functionalities.…
  4. … and training consultants that design and organize the training sessions. Trainers…
  5. … Co-creation and the New Landscapes of design. Codesign, 4(1), 5-18.
  6. … Merriënboer, J. J. (2014). Participatory design of learning environments: Integrating…
  7. … some implications and project design recommendations for researchers and practitioners…
  8. In this chapter, co-design refers to “the creativity of designers and people…
  9. … led to more flexibility in the design of the MOOC. The complexity of the project…
  10. … management), immersion in participatory design and co-design sessions were organized…
  11. 3. The Co-design of the MOOC: Process and Means
  12. The July co-design session ended with a final test conducted using all current…
  13. The co-design session was organized to produce and test prototypes. During the…
  14. 3.2. The June Session: Co-design of the MOOC Architecture
  15. The co-design of this MOOC played a role in exploring new, hybrid end-users’…
  16. The enlarged design teams learned from one another through collaborative work…
  17. … describe the final product and design of the MOOC that were developed in June…
  18. … of the Issues Related to the design of a Blended or Hybrid MOOC
  19. 2.1. Participatory, design Thinking and Co-design
  20. The team design built the co-design session’s program focusing on conditions…
  21. … process, participants in the co-design became partners and actors in the participatory…
  22. 4.2. The design Teams’ Reflection on Learner Experience design (LXD) From a…
  23. … environment, and collaborative design methods (rapid collaborative prototyping…
  24. The first collaborative design session was held in March, during an in-house…
  25. The co-design method focused on producing artifacts in limited time using craft…
  26. … demonstrates that instructional/UX designers using participatory/co-design methods…
  27. … Three approaches to making in codesigning. Codesign, 10(1), 5-14.
  28. … B. (2019). How participatory design works: Mechanisms and effects. OZCHI '19…
  29. The co-design method consisted in producing collective ideas and artifacts in…
  30. … University of Innovation, the design team of the MOOC further adjusted the final…
  31. … presented the emergence of the design of the MOOC, we will now focus on two…
  32. First, participatory design and co-design sessions need a sufficient number and…
  33. … beginning of the MOOC, the course design offered participants to choose the…
  34. Brown, T. (2008). design thinking. Harvard Business Review, 86(6), 1-10.
  35. … seminars, seminar speakers, co-design seminar) as well as digital networks (structuring…
  36. The co-design practices have been delivered to several units within the Institution,…
  37. design thinking was used by Tim Brown from the IDEO agency (2008) as "a discipline…
  38. … based on voluntary basis. The design team, as seen in the timeline below (left…
  39. … and politics of participatory design. Accounting, Management and Information…
  40. … Blomberg, J. (1998). Participatory design: Issues and concerns. Computer Supported…
  41. In this chapter, we focus on a design case (Howard, 2011) in the field of adult…
  42. During that period of time, the design team organized participatory and co-design
  43. … and rewriting the instructional design case: A view from two sides. International…
  44. The MOOC was designed using different methods of instructional design and project…
  45. … innovation challenge and formed co-design teams; they worked together during…
  46. … dedicated to innovation and co-design called the University of Public Innovation.…
  47. … observations and study of the design of the MOOC. We give some special thanks…
  48. … lab (Figure 3) was specifically designed and fitted to promote collaboration,…
  49. … of knowledge on instructional design (9907 publications on July 28th, 2019,…
  50. … introducing what they called “co-design.” The main objectives were to develop…
  51. … either employed or freelance designers. The group also included the Canadian…
  52. … perspective, learner experience design (LXD) is not only based on the learning…
  53. … June session was held using co-design methods to help prototype the macro-design
  54. Using a co-design and a participatory design process (Sanders & Stappers, 2008,…
  55. … Institution was implementing co-design as a new strategy to foster collaboration…
  56. … of the critical phases of co-design is the testing. In participatory design,…

Supporting Equity in Schools: Using Visual Learning Analytics to Understand Learners’ Classroom Experiences

  1. … importance of human-centered design (HCD) methods being incorporated in the…
  2. … play a significant role in the design and development process of various curricular…
  3. … W. R., & Yarnall, L. (2005). designing handheld software to support classroom…
  4. … Preece, J. (2004). User-centered design. In W. Bainbridge (Ed.), Berkshire encyclopedia…
  5. … 2004). Effective software must be designed to scaffold the analytic process…
  6. … this section, we describe the design of the SEETs as a visual analytics tool.…
  7. designing assessments that address issues related to equity and epistemic justice…
  8. Learning experience design is an interdisciplinary and evolving field (Ahn, 2019).…
  9. Cognitive interviews helped us, as designers of the SEETs, validate our view…
  10. Teachers also provided design recommendations to make the visualizations more…
  11. … human-centered or user experience design methods for a better adaptation of…
  12. … teachers who were included in the design process taught science at the middle…
  13. … approach to systematic educational design research. Journal of the Learning…
  14. … professional development course designed to help teachers learn to carry out…
  15. … Hay, K. (1994). Learner-centered design: The challenge for HCI in the 21st century.…
  16. … more equitable classrooms. In design-based research, a conjecture map is used…
  17. … inspiration for learning experience design (LX) from diverse perspectives. The…
  18. … gathering information related to the design of the dashboard. We also attended…
  19. … methods impacted the tool’s design and development process to meet our objective…
  20. … D. A. (2005). Human-centered design considered harmful. Interactions, 12(4),…

Think-Aloud Observations to Improve Online Course Design: A Case Example and “How-to” Guide

  1. … Ragan, T. J. (2005). Instructional design (3rd ed.). Wiley.
  2. … (Farrell, 2017). The first step in designing a TAO is identifying what should…
  3. … (2018). Improving online course design with think-aloud observations: A “how-to”…
  4. While each instructional design unit used their own course design and recruited…
  5. … important things about the course design will be learned from simple observation,…
  6. … subsequent suggestions for the best UX design practices in Canvas.
  7. … that, while some instructional design models emphasize evaluation of the design
  8. … (2019, May 26). Intuitive web design: How to make your website intuitive to…
  9. Rankin, J. M. (1988). designing thinking-aloud studies in ESL reading. Reading…
  10. … improving the UX of online course designs. First, it positioned UX in the broader…
  11. … university where instructional design is largely decentralized, and multiple…
  12. … two facilitators, one can be designated to take notes. However, even if there…
  13. … in.” To maximize intuitive design, use identical terms for the same item throughout…
  14. … Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches (3rd…
  15. Each instructional design unit participating in the study recruited student participants…
  16. 3.5.3. design Within the Conventions of the LMS
  17. … (Ed.). (1983). Instructional-design theories and models: An overview of their…
  18. … (2010). Improving online course design through usability testing. Journal of…
  19. … findings and implications for design practices, specifically pertaining to improving…
  20. … October). Improving online course design with think-aloud observations: A “how-to”…
  21. While instructional designers may want course navigation to be seamless from…
  22. … identify suggested best practice design principles (Braun & Clarke, 2006; Clarke…
  23. … when there is consistency in UX design across online courses. One participant…
  24. 3.1. Study design
  25. … usability testing: How to plan, design, and conduct effective tests (2nd ed.).…
  26. While not specifically a design-based research (DBR) study, our research was…
  27. … can be used in instructional design and online learning contexts to improve…
  28. … and thoughts about how to make design improvements (e.g., “rename groups for…
  29. … operationalize learning-centered design principles in online learning environments…
  30. … for others in the instructional design field to provide instructions for conducting…
  31. … Do: Conducting TAOs for Course design
  32. … Proceedings of the 6th conference on designing interactive systems (pp. 209–218).…
  33. … required to navigate more than one design. David illustrated this: “You're…
  34. Prioritizing UX in online course design assumes a learner experience paradigm,…
  35. … A framework for instructional design. Educational Technology, 51(2), 15-22.
  36. … Anticipating experience while designing online courses. British Journal of Educational…
  37. … consumer website; however, poor UX design still has learning consequences. One…
  38. … Consider Consistent Online Course design Across Courses
  39. … Within this context, educators and designers are responsible for creating “environing…
  40. … change but may also highlight design areas that can be improved in the course…
  41. … observing people other than the designers navigating the online course while…
  42. … provides a crucial bridge between designer intentions and user interaction.…
  43. … environment: Learner-centred design? Journal of Computer Assisted Learning,…
  44. … testing is to improve course design and the student navigation experience. When…
  45. The design-Based Research Collective. (2003). design-based research: An emerging…
  46. … important as misalignment between designer intention and actual user experience…
  47. … best practices for intuitive design based on the experiences of the 19 participants.…
  48. Instructors and designers often develop workarounds to make systems work differently…
  49. designing to improve UX will also contribute to improving pedagogical usability…
  50. … & Molin, M. (2012). Intuitive design principles: Guidelines for how to build…
  51. … from the first instructional design unit participating in the study, received…

design case

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … the participatory design and co-design case are presented from two perspectives.…
  2. … present two digital learning tools design cases that were guided by theories of change.…
  3. … learning design practice. Using the design case approach, the authors describe designed…
  4. … her colleagues then present two design cases that feature this approach to learning…
  5. … field. The authors explain their design case with great detail using their data collection,…
  6. … step of this workflow with a design case. Applying LX design principles to a game…

Paradigms of Knowledge Production in Human-Computer Interaction: Towards a Framing for Learner Experience (LX) Design

  1. … research (Wang & Hannafin, 2005) + design cases (Boling, 2010)
  2. Boling, E. (2010). The need for design cases: Disseminating design knowledge. International…

Flow Theory and Learning Experience Design in Gamified Learning Environments

  1. 3. design case of Flow Theory and LXD
  2. Boling, E. (2010). The need for design cases: Disseminating design knowledge. International…
  3. … section that follows, we detail a design case that describes how the principles of…
  4. … experience. Furthermore, the design case also suggests that providing participants…
  5. … latter, the chapter will detail a design case (Boling, 2010) about how the engagement…
  6. … terms of game competition, the design case describes how competition drove engagement…
  7. The design case took place at a southeastern urban research university with approximately…
  8. Although the design case highlights how flow theory could be applied to a gamified…

Color Theory in Experience Design

  1. … uses of color through iterative design cases and continual improvement. Though UX…

The Role of Needs Assessment to Validate Contextual Factors Related to User Experience Design Practices

  1. … contexts. Also needed is the use of design cases that dissect how particular UX design…

Integrating Learner and User Experience Design: A Bidirectional Approach

  1. In this design case, we describe how a well-known approach within UX design processes…
  2. … through the presentation of two design cases (Boling, 2010; Smith & Boling, 2009)…
  3. Our two design cases reveal that LXDs and UXDs must consider both learner and user…
  4. … infuse LXD methods. In the first design case, we explore how learning experience…
  5. … what follows, we explore two design cases that feature a learner-centered approach…
  6. Boling, E. (2010). The need for design cases: Disseminating design knowledge. International…

Participatory Design and Co-Design—The Case of a MOOC on Public Innovation

  1. In this chapter, we focus on a design case (Howard, 2011) in the field of adult vocational…
  2. … and rewriting the instructional design case: A view from two sides. International…

design expertise

Learning Experience Design: Challenges for Novice Designers

  1. … findings from empirical research on design expertise, contextualized as implications for…
  2. … design thinking: A comparison of design expertise. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 27,…
  3. … Stepich, D. (2005). Instructional design expertise: How Will We Know It When We See It? Educational…
  4. … (2009). "Teaching" instructional design expertise: Strategies to support students' problem-Finding…
  5. … of research on instructional design expertise distinguishes some fundamental differences…
  6. … Emery, C. D. (1995). Instructional design expertise: A cognitive model of design. Instructional…

design methods

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … applies participatory design and co-design methods to the design of a Massive Open Online…
  2. … the HCI community’s focus on design methods. To pursue connections between the two…
  3. … serves as an application of UX design methods to the design of a visual learning analytics…
  4. … by using participatory and co-design methods, presents opportunities for powerful synergy.…

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. … a number of existing learning design methods can be used or adapted to fit iterative…

Paradigms of Knowledge Production in Human-Computer Interaction: Towards a Framing for Learner Experience (LX) Design

  1. … sought to create and disseminate design methods. ADDIE and its many derivatives focus…
  2. … practitioners' conception of design methods. CHI '16: Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference…

The Role of Needs Assessment to Validate Contextual Factors Related to User Experience Design Practices

  1. … practitioners’ conception of design methods. Proceedings of the 2016 CHI conference…

Intentional Learning Design for Educational Games: A Workflow Supporting Novices and Experts

  1. … J. (2017). Using formal game design methods to embed learning outcomes into game mechanics…

Participatory Design and Co-Design—The Case of a MOOC on Public Innovation

  1. … last, design thinking and other design methods from design sciences are also being used…
  2. … environment, and collaborative design methods (rapid collaborative prototyping and testing).…
  3. … June session was held using co-design methods to help prototype the macro-design of…
  4. … implemented. The development of co-design methods was progressive, iterative, and linked…
  5. … designers using participatory/co-design methods can powerfully achieve two goals: a)…

Supporting Equity in Schools: Using Visual Learning Analytics to Understand Learners’ Classroom Experiences

  1. … illustrated how user experience design methods can be applied to the design of learning…
  2. … human-centered or user experience design methods for a better adaptation of the learning…

design principles

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … sociotechnical systems’ design, wherein design principles can be found in abundance.…
  2. … the authors also identify UX design principles and methods that could be used as references…
  3. … Experts synthesizes a set of LX design principles and links each principle to characteristics…

Flow Theory and Learning Experience Design in Gamified Learning Environments

  1. … purposes of gamification is to use design principles from games to make learning a more…

Learning Experience Design: Challenges for Novice Designers

  1. … solutions based on appropriate design principles, as well as evaluating and iterating the…
  2. … (2016). Examining instructional design principles applied by experienced designers in practice.…

Intentional Learning Design for Educational Games: A Workflow Supporting Novices and Experts

  1. Park, T., & Lim, C. (2019). design principles for improving emotional affordances in an…

Think-Aloud Observations to Improve Online Course Design: A Case Example and “How-to” Guide

  1. … literature—by identifying UX design principles and methods that could be relevant to…
  2. … operationalize learning-centered design principles in online learning environments (Silius…
  3. … & Molin, M. (2012). Intuitive design principles: Guidelines for how to build an instinctual…
  4. … designs in Canvas? (2) What UX design principles and best practices do these experiences…
  5. … identify suggested best practice design principles (Braun & Clarke, 2006; Clarke & Braun,…

design process

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … of UCD onto established LIDT design processes.
  2. … approaches and informing their design processes. Collectively, these frameworks begin…
  3. … Designers follows with a conceptual design process that positions LX design as an ill-structured…
  4. … community’s tendency to focus on design processes with the HCI community’s focus…
  5. … complexities introduced to the design process as a result of conceiving of learners…
  6. … LX design principles to a game design process ensures the connection between appropriate…

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. … design methods within iterative design processes, learning designers can advance their…
  2. … their needs centrally in the design process, and (c) allow for creation of design guidelines…
  3. … provided examples of iterative design processes and commonly used evaluation methodologies…
  4. … later stages of the learning design process, allowing for tweaks and refinements to…
  5. … and prototypes, the learning design process becomes iterative, dynamic, and more responsive…
  6. One potential pitfall of any design process occurs when designers create systems based…
  7. … commonly occurs early in the design process after paper prototyping. It allows designers…
  8. … the user sufficiently in the design process. This extends to the field of learning design…
  9. … insight to situate the learning design process. While the design of learning technologies…

Paradigms of Knowledge Production in Human-Computer Interaction: Towards a Framing for Learner Experience (LX) Design

  1. … 2009). These views of design and design process have the potential to diverge in unproductive…
  2. … everyday people to engage in design processes in ways that value their lived experience…
  3. Schön, D. A. (1990). The design process. In V. A. Howard (Ed.), Varieties of thinking:…
  4. … largely on issues relating to design process (see Branch, 2009; Gibbons et al., 1996,…

Theories of Change in Learning Experience (LX) Design

  1. … longevity, which are testament to the design process. While their target learners and…
  2. … misleading impression that UX and LX design processes are linear and tidy. They generally…
  3. Sorcar’s design process aimed at testing a clear theory of change: that to teach HIV/AIDS…
  4. … serve as powerful anchors for the design process, and help answer the fundamental process…

Flow Theory and Learning Experience Design in Gamified Learning Environments

  1. … and error prevention during the design process. While learning theory provides the foundation…

Models and Design Frameworks for LX

  1. … approaches and informing their design processes. Collectively, these frameworks begin…

Learning Experience Design: Challenges for Novice Designers

  1. … difficulties engaging in the complex design process that entails understanding the underlying…
  2. … knowledge for effective and efficient design process (Bransford et al., 2000; Chi et…
  3. … thinking in the early phases of the design process. International Journal of Technology…
  4. … strengths, and weaknesses to the design process.

The Role of Needs Assessment to Validate Contextual Factors Related to User Experience Design Practices

  1. … offers several advantages to the design process. It positions the instructional designer…
  2. … this reach on the instructional design process. Baaki and Tracey (2019) noted that their…
  3. … component of the instructional design process (Branch & Dousay, 2015; Dick et al., 2009;…
  4. … the user throughout the entire design process to address issues with relevancy, fidelity,…
  5. The instructional design process requires instructional designers to undertake a number…
  6. … data and thus inform the entire design process.
  7. … throughout the instructional design process.
  8. … learner-centered approach to the design process by gathering information that provides…
  9. … on UX strategies early in the design process. Additional time is allocated at the beginning…

From Engagement to User Experience: A Theoretical Perspective Towards Immersive Learning

  1. … difficult to acquire. During the design process, novice design students are challenged…

Intentional Learning Design for Educational Games: A Workflow Supporting Novices and Experts

  1. … directly involving learners in the design process. Whilst for Maria the learner involvement…
  2. … be maintained through the game design process.
  3. … outcome and every next step in the design process, including the choice of your medium…
  4. … framework. This step-by-step design process will also explicitly identify where GBL…
  5. … who were not involved in the design process. This development stage is the perfect opportunity…
  6. … important to LXD by incorporating the design processes proposed by LXD experts (Floor,…

Integrating Learner and User Experience Design: A Bidirectional Approach

  1. … innovation will arise, enrich the design process, and improve design outcomes.
  2. … well-known approach within UX design processes (personas) was adopted by LXDs and used…
  3. … approaches into the learning design process. Many instructors are not familiar with…
  4. … new UX tools into a learning design process, opportunities for reflection provide instructors…
  5. … guide a user experience (UX) design process, and we investigate how UX approaches can…

Participatory Design and Co-Design—The Case of a MOOC on Public Innovation

  1. … of participatory design and co-design processes were used to engineer a connectivist…
  2. … built using an instructional co-design process. On a micro scale, participants in the…
  3. … implies a participation in the design process itself that can drive change. In our case,…
  4. … actors. Incorporating users in the design process led to longer delays, higher budgets,…
  5. … on to the next step of the co-design process. This loop was repeated several times.…
  6. … co-design and a participatory design process (Sanders & Stappers, 2008, 2014) enhanced…
  7. … chapter were involved in this design process. The authors are a researcher working in…

Supporting Equity in Schools: Using Visual Learning Analytics to Understand Learners’ Classroom Experiences

  1. … teachers and learners in the design process of systems meant to impact teaching and…
  2. … teachers who were included in the design process taught science at the middle school…
  3. … stakeholders in the creation and design process of learning analytics tools. They conducted…

design thinking

Paradigms of Knowledge Production in Human-Computer Interaction: Towards a Framing for Learner Experience (LX) Design

  1. … (2009). The design of business: Why design thinking is the next competitive advantage.…
  2. … (2009). Change by design: How design thinking transforms organizations and inspires innovation.…
  3. … often known by the moniker “design thinking,” has been taken on perhaps most substantially…

Learning Experience Design: Challenges for Novice Designers

  1. … Wrigley, C. (2018). Facilitating design thinking: A comparison of design expertise. Thinking…

The Role of Needs Assessment to Validate Contextual Factors Related to User Experience Design Practices

  1. … interaction. Similar to terms such as design thinking or evaluative thinking, the concept…
  2. Stefaniak, J. (2020). The utility of design thinking to promote systemic instructional…

Participatory Design and Co-Design—The Case of a MOOC on Public Innovation

  1. 2.1. Participatory, design thinking and Co-Design
  2. … (Cristol, 2014, p.13). At last, design thinking and other design methods from design…
  3. Brown, T. (2008). design thinking. Harvard Business Review, 86(6), 1-10.
  4. design thinking was used by Tim Brown from the IDEO agency (2008) as "a discipline that…
  5. … participatory team. The team used design thinking, co-design, and participatory design…

emotion

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … of color that influence human emotion and how designers might consider color-use…
  2. … various foci, including ID, empathy/emotional design, interaction design, and…

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. … viewing images of faces showing emotions and states including happy, surprised,…

Theories of Change in Learning Experience (LX) Design

  1. … understand what elements contribute to emotional safety. While competitive analysis…
  2. … learners to increase the sense of emotional comfort while learning about a culturally…

Flow Theory and Learning Experience Design in Gamified Learning Environments

  1. … (2020). The effects of flow, emotional engagement, and motivation on success…

Color Theory in Experience Design

  1. … Homer, B. D., & Um, E. (2014). emotional design in multimedia learning: Effects…
  2. … Relationship between color and emotion: A study of college students. College…
  3. … aspect of color that influences emotion; a color’s saturation (how little white…
  4. … Hoeksma, J. B. (1995). Colors and emotions: Preferences and combinations. The…
  5. Psychological research on the emotional effects of color extends at least back…
  6. … Müller, J., & Reichelt, M. (2015). emotional design in multimedia learning:…
  7. Third, because color conveys emotional (and sometimes even conceptual) meaning…
  8. … that you feel exemplifies the emotional state you want to create with your design.…
  9. … UX by summarizing some of the emotional, cognitive, and physiological effects…
  10. … these interfaces, how might your emotional and behavioral reaction to the prompt…
  11. … (Elliot et al., 2007). Though such emotional states might have limited direct…
  12. … E. O., & Homer, B. D. (2012). emotional design in multimedia learning. Journal…
  13. … relationships between color, emotion, and learning, (c) some guiding considerations…
  14. … must not only understand the emotions elicited by each color itself but also…
  15. … color wheel, they have various emotional and physiological reactions to them…
  16. 3. emotion and Learning
  17. … color that matches your overall emotional objective for your product—blues…
  18. … presented, thereby evoking conflicting emotions. The neutral grey background…
  19. … A. (1994). Effects of color on emotions. Journal of Experimental Psychology:…

Learning Experience Design: Challenges for Novice Designers

  1. … influences (e.g., cognitive, emotional, social, cultural, political and aesthetic…

The Role of Needs Assessment to Validate Contextual Factors Related to User Experience Design Practices

  1. … design: imagining the cognitive and emotional learner experience. Educational…
  2. … primarily involved with testing the emotional reactions of users and improving…
  3. … designer being influenced by emotions or interests they may not even be aware…

From Engagement to User Experience: A Theoretical Perspective Towards Immersive Learning

  1. … sense of curiosity and awe, an emotion that can have both positive and negative…
  2. Common UX factors include emotion or affect, which is often operationalized as…

Intentional Learning Design for Educational Games: A Workflow Supporting Novices and Experts

  1. … activities overlap with Empathy/emotional Design, progress into Interaction Design,…
  2. … explicitly includes non-tangible emotional and cognitive actions/reactions as…
  3. … principle for increasing the emotional affordances of learning situations (Park…
  4. … needs, experiences, desires, and emotions are crucial. Park and Lim (2019) state…
  5. … progressive goals and learner emotion is clear, and a learner’s perception…
  6. 2.1.1. Human-Focused, emotional, and Personal
  7. … design: Imagining the cognitive and emotional learner experience. Educational…
  8. … strategy and flow and require emotional as well as cognitive design. Explicit…
  9. … reflection, support/guidance, emotional design, and authentic linking between…
  10. … practitioners, increase the focus on emotional design and the wider LXD context…
  11. … more insight into the social and emotional flow of gameplay that cannot necessarily…
  12. … motivations to guide them both emotionally and cognitively through a responsive…
  13. … inform GBL design, embracing emotional design, mapping learning behaviors to…
  14. … which acknowledges players’ emotional experiences alongside their intellectual…
  15. … Loverock, S. (2008). Assessing emotions related to learning new software: The…
  16. … Design principles for improving emotional affordances in an online learning environment.…
  17. … learning tools with a focus on emotional flow as well as learner goals. As is…

Supporting Equity in Schools: Using Visual Learning Analytics to Understand Learners’ Classroom Experiences

  1. … oriented multimodal and contextual emotional dashboard. In A. Wise, P. H. Winne,…
  2. … approach to explore learner's emotionality in learning within a 3D narrative…
  3. The various emotional states of learners during a video-based instructional session…

Think-Aloud Observations to Improve Online Course Design: A Case Example and “How-to” Guide

  1. … can also expose participants’ emotions, expectations, and preconceptions (Rubin…

empathy

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … with various foci, including ID, empathy/emotional design, interaction design,…

Learning Experience Design: Challenges for Novice Designers

  1. … learners requires imagination and empathy by the designers (Parrish, 2009), and…

The Role of Needs Assessment to Validate Contextual Factors Related to User Experience Design Practices

  1. … 1 is enclosed by three bands: empathy, pragmatism, and co-existence to demonstrate…
  2. … during needs assessments to employ empathy and pragmatism in user-centered learning…
  3. Vann, L. S. (2017). Demonstrating empathy: A phenomenological study of instructional…
  4. … C., & McDonald, J. K. (2017). empathy in distance learning design practice. TechTrends,…

Intentional Learning Design for Educational Games: A Workflow Supporting Novices and Experts

  1. … the need for learner-centred empathy.
  2. … These activities overlap with empathy/Emotional Design, progress into Interaction…
  3. Maria is foregrounding empathy in her design. She believes that, if the children…
  4. … range of studies on emotion and empathy in teaching and learning contexts (e.g.,…

Supporting Equity in Schools: Using Visual Learning Analytics to Understand Learners’ Classroom Experiences

  1. … would definitely give me some empathy. Especially here, in coherence for females.…

engagement

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. In the chapter From engagement to User Experience: A Theoretical Perspective Towards…

Paradigms of Knowledge Production in Human-Computer Interaction: Towards a Framing for Learner Experience (LX) Design

  1. … has facilitated new modes of engagement with end users that is not present in traditional…
  2. … everyday users across the design engagement that is not easily captured in a typical…
  3. … knowledge production and disciplinary engagement in HCI. Third, I will situate theories,…
  4. … temporal positioning of these engagements can vary broadly. For instance, a probe…
  5. Technology engagement as aesthetic experience (Wright & McCarthy, 2004)
  6. … practices, there is increasing engagement with other disciplinary communities such…

Theories of Change in Learning Experience (LX) Design

  1. … to favor intuitive outcomes of engagement, likability, and usability to measure…
  2. … Finding flow: The psychology of engagement with everyday life. Basic Books.
  3. … to use and will sustain user engagement.

Flow Theory and Learning Experience Design in Gamified Learning Environments

  1. … this state of flow, learners’ engagement is often high and they have intense concentration…
  2. … J. (2017). Toward meaningful engagement: A framework for design and research of…
  3. … Finding flow: The psychology of engagement with everyday life. Basic Books.
  4. … this state of flow that their engagement is high, and they have an intense concentration…
  5. … elements of learner control and engagement.
  6. … flow especially as it relates to engagement.
  7. … more holistic understanding of engagement and flow could be gained from these different…
  8. … Effectiveness of gamification in the engagement of students. Computers in Human…
  9. … principal theories associated with engagement and gamification is flow theory, also…
  10. … sought to increase faculty’s engagement using gamification elements and flow theory…
  11. … certificate of completion) to promote engagement and create an optimal learning…
  12. … gamification: Adding game elements for engagement. Medical Reference Services Quarterly,…
  13. … link between increased levels of engagement and the introduction of gamification…
  14. … gamification motivates visits and engagement for online academic dissemination—An…
  15. … The effects of flow, emotional engagement, and motivation on success in a gamified…
  16. … online faculty’s perceptions of engagement within a gamified professional development…
  17. … (Boling, 2010) about how the engagement construct within flow theory was applied…
  18. … aspect to increased flow and engagement within the PD course. According to the literature,…
  19. … performance to increase user engagement: clear goals and immediate feedback, equilibrium…
  20. … competency was completed for “engagement: The Way Learning” (Figure 4). As noted…
  21. … Universal Design for Learning, (b) engagement – The Why of Learning, (c) Representation…
  22. … describes how competition drove engagement and created an optimal environment for…
  23. … with the challenge to foster engagement in professional development within higher…

Color Theory in Experience Design

  1. … evoking passion, dissent, or engagement; cool colors evoking comfort, closeness,…

Sociotechnical-Pedagogical Usability for Designing and Evaluating Learner Experience in Technology-Enhanced Environments

  1. … arrangements. However, learners' engagement with learning technologies in real-world…

Learning Experience Design: Challenges for Novice Designers

  1. … experience includes the cognitive engagement with the learning tasks, as well as…
  2. … learning goal through meaningful engagement led by the learners. That is, each learner…
  3. … by which motivation relates to engagement and learning. Consequently, this gives…

From Engagement to User Experience: A Theoretical Perspective Towards Immersive Learning

  1. … lead to improved or diminished engagement with a technology. There are similarities…
  2. … framework: Linking cognitive engagement to active learning outcomes. Educational…
  3. … that indirectly lead to learner engagement through constructs that hold meaning…
  4. … framework to improve learner engagement.
  5. … is a need to force continued engagement through variation, much like in active learning.
  6. … considered a factor leading to learner engagement (Ainley & Ainley, 2011). Features…
  7. … and their relationship towards engagement. It is particularly difficult when the…
  8. … enjoyment to improve learner engagement.
  9. … improving student designs through the engagement resulting from being able to address…
  10. … Pelachaud, C. (2015). Definitions of engagement in human-agent interaction. Proceedings…
  11. … being used to enhance learner engagement in the spatial disciplines. We draw our…
  12. … (Soto, 2013), and increasing engagement through activity (Procter, 2012). Depending…
  13. … are directly related to learner engagement (D’Mello et al., 2017). We focus on…
  14. … and can highly impact learner engagement. In the case of novelty, we find that some…
  15. … satisfaction, enjoyment, and learner engagement. Similarly, learner feedback from…
  16. … (2009). Immersive interfaces for engagement and learning. Science, 323(5910), 66-69.
  17. … Immersive Technology for Learner engagement
  18. … & Ainley, J. (2011). Student engagement with science in early adolescence: The contribution…
  19. … outcomes through constructivist engagement in Second Life. International Journal…
  20. … II commentary: Motivation and engagement: Conceptual, operational, and empirical…
  21. … conclude with the intended impact on engagement within learning scenarios that use…
  22. … automated (AAA) measurement of engagement during learning. Educational Psychologist,…
  23. … to ultimately lead to learner engagement, our framework’s outcome. We present…
  24. … concept in our discussion—learner engagement.
  25. … how they work together or how engagement does or does not occur.
  26. Meaningful engagement is fundamental to the learning process (Martin, 2012) as a…
  27. … implications to improve learner engagement and ultimately learning.
  28. … several UX factors that increase engagement with the technology experience and ultimately…
  29. 5. Building Learner engagement through Immersive Technologies
  30. Learner engagement is an outcome often associated with immersive technology (Dede,…
  31. … Dupret, G. (2012). Models of user engagement. In J. Masthoff (Ed.), Proceedings…
  32. … influencing the degree of learner engagement. We discussed several known UX factors…
  33. 2.1. Learner engagement
  34. … experience, generates high levels of engagement from users which can quickly dissipate…

Intentional Learning Design for Educational Games: A Workflow Supporting Novices and Experts

  1. … learn: An empirical study on engagement, flow and immersion in game-based learning.…
  2. … (2009). The development of the game engagement questionnaire : A measure of engagement
  3. … learner-focused approach (i.e., a mode of engagement that is personal, supported,…
  4. … actions that will lead to learner engagement with the ILOs.
  5. Whitton, N. (2011). Encouraging engagement in game-based learning. International…
  6. … critical for both learning and engagement (Dodero et al., 2015, p. 187).

Integrating Learner and User Experience Design: A Bidirectional Approach

  1. … motivation for taking the course, and engagement strategies were provided by faculty…

Participatory Design and Co-Design—The Case of a MOOC on Public Innovation

  1. … pédagogique au service de l’engagement dans un MOOC. L’Harmattan.

Supporting Equity in Schools: Using Visual Learning Analytics to Understand Learners’ Classroom Experiences

  1. … meaningful guidelines for their engagement can be elaborated, such as allowing students…

epistemology

Sociotechnical-Pedagogical Usability for Designing and Evaluating Learner Experience in Technology-Enhanced Environments

  1. e.g., epistemology, added value for teaching, objectiveness, match between designer…

equity

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … Jacobs, and Sumner, Supporting equity in Schools: Using Visual Learning Analytics…

Paradigms of Knowledge Production in Human-Computer Interaction: Towards a Framing for Learner Experience (LX) Design

  1. … impact, calling attention to inequity, and encouraging dialogue and social activism.…

Supporting Equity in Schools: Using Visual Learning Analytics to Understand Learners’ Classroom Experiences

  1. … that address issues related to equity and epistemic justice in the classroom…
  2. We argue that supporting equity involves understanding learners’ experiences…
  3. … agent for teachers to consider inequity in their classrooms. For example in…
  4. … (2019). Assessment to promote equity and epistemic justice: A use-case of a…
  5. … Amplifying and attenuating inequity in collaborative learning: Toward an analytical…
  6. … how visualizations can reveal equity concerns in classrooms. Using this UX method…
  7. … meet our objective of promoting equity from the lens of teachers. A use case…
  8. … D., & Pimm, D. (Eds.). (2011). equity in discourse for mathematics education:…
  9. … like the present: Reflecting on equity in school mathematics. Theory into Practice,…
  10. … ability classrooms: Quality and equity dimensions of education effectiveness.…
  11. Moschkovich, J. N. (2012). How equity concerns lead to attention to mathematical…
  12. … teachers are about fostering equity in their classrooms. As part of our research…

evaluation methods

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. … conjunction with a variety of evaluation methods to better align prototype interface designs…

Paradigms of Knowledge Production in Human-Computer Interaction: Towards a Framing for Learner Experience (LX) Design

  1. … shift from “verified design and evaluation methods” to “a palette of situated design…

Sociotechnical-Pedagogical Usability for Designing and Evaluating Learner Experience in Technology-Enhanced Environments

  1. … However, a tension exists in that evaluation methods that focus narrowly on technological…

experimental evaluation

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … design and user experience, (d) experimental evaluations, and (e) feedback and implementation.…

The Design Implementation Framework: Guiding Principles for the Redesign of a Reading Comprehension Intelligent Tutoring System

  1. experimental evaluation is a unique and critical aspect of DIF. Experiments, unlike other research…
  2. … development. The explicit inclusion of experimental evaluations also allowed us to uncover the…
  3. … key element of the DIF cycle is experimental evaluations in addition to user feedback.
  4. … predecessor. Our findings from this experimental evaluation highlight the tension between different…
  5. experimental evaluations
  6. 3.5. experimental evaluation
  7. … Design and User Experience, (d) experimental evaluations, and (e) Feedback and Implementation…
  8. … from cognitive walkthroughs and experimental evaluations showed positive effects of our redesign…

eye-tracking

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. 4.8. eye-tracking
  2. … to the think-aloud user study, eye-tracking is an evaluation method that involves…
  3. … perspective of learning design, eye-tracking and EEG-based user testing are typically…

Color Theory in Experience Design

  1. … that matter. For instance, one eye-tracking study found that adding random colors…

flow theory

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. flow theory and Learning Experience Design in Gamified Learning Environments by Vann…

Flow Theory and Learning Experience Design in Gamified Learning Environments

  1. … the theoretical foundations of flow theory (Guo et al., 2016) and its implications…
  2. … Csikszentmihalyi, 1996). Alternatively, flow theory highlights how a poorly designed…
  3. … redesigned using elements of flow theory and gamification.
  4. … D., & Wiebe, E. (2011). Using flow theory to design video games as experimental stimuli.…
  5. … The researcher believed that flow theory and related empirical evidence supported…
  6. This chapter argues that flow theory is an approach that equally describes the learning…
  7. … electronic learning system: The flow theory perspective. International Journal of…
  8. The first construct of flow theory includes clear goals and immediate feedback. The…
  9. … the design case highlights how flow theory could be applied to a gamified approach,…
  10. 3. Design Case of flow theory and LXD
  11. … elements were included to support flow theory and gamified learning. As participants…
  12. 3.4. Rationale for flow theory
  13. 3.5. Course Design Using flow theory and Gamified Learning
  14. … engagement and gamification is flow theory, also known as optimal experience theory…
  15. … Learning Experience Design and flow theory in Game-Based Learning
  16. 2. flow theory
  17. … earlier, the theoretical tenets of flow theory align well with gamified approaches…
  18. … using gamification elements and flow theory within the course to improve faculty’s…
  19. … characteristically lacking engagement, using flow theory to design the course may…

From Engagement to User Experience: A Theoretical Perspective Towards Immersive Learning

  1. … Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2009). flow theory and research. In C. R. Snyder, & S. J. Lopez…

focus group

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. … students to participate in a focus group. The learning designer had created a semi-structured…
  2. 4.2. focus groups
  3. focus groups are often used during the front-end analysis phase. Rather than the researcher…
  4. … analyzing user data (e.g., surveys, focus groups, interviews, observations) and assessing…

The Design Implementation Framework: Guiding Principles for the Redesign of a Reading Comprehension Intelligent Tutoring System

  1. … iSTART effectively. We conducted focus groups and worked closely with teacher-partners…
  2. We conducted several focus groups and interviews with teachers who were using iSTART…

game design

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … Rieber, L. P. (2017). Leveling up: game design research and practice for instructional…
  2. … scholars in the area of educational game design (e.g., Charsky, 2010; Hirumi et al.,…
  3. … design, interaction design, and game design. Abbott elaborates on each step of this…

Learning Experience Design: Challenges for Novice Designers

  1. … DODDEL model to teach serious game design to novice designers. Proceedings of Ascilite…

The Design Implementation Framework: Guiding Principles for the Redesign of a Reading Comprehension Intelligent Tutoring System

  1. … examining trends in website and game design. The research team met to discuss which…

Intentional Learning Design for Educational Games: A Workflow Supporting Novices and Experts

  1. … and confident with educational game design, an ambitious and complex example involving…
  2. … interdisciplinary expertise spanning game design, interaction design, and pedagogy…
  3. … (and improving the rigour of the game design through subsequent iterations).
  4. … practical considerations which impact game design within an LXD framework.
  5. … strong pedagogical as well as game design foundations. Shaded boxes in Figure 1 attempt…
  6. … elements of LXD, Floor (2018) places game design towards the goal (as opposed to…
  7. … Purdy, J. (2017). Using formal game design methods to embed learning outcomes into…
  8. … loop: A player activity model for game design and analysis. ACE '16: Proceedings…
  9. … can be maintained through the game design process.
  10. … Interaction Design, and culminate in game design as learning content and mechanics…
  11. … interdisciplinary link between pedagogy and game design reinforces LXD’s potential…
  12. … young to participate directly in game design, Maria has previously had good results…
  13. … (2012). The six facets of serious game design: A methodology enhanced by our design…

game-based learning

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … Preparing Instructional Designers for game-based learning: Part 1. TechTrends, 54(3), 27-37.
  2. … Preparing Instructional Designers for game-based learning: Part 2. TechTrends, 54(4), 19-27.
  3. … design of physical—not digital—game-based learning interventions. Abbott’s Intentional…

Flow Theory and Learning Experience Design in Gamified Learning Environments

  1. … Experience Design and Flow Theory in game-based learning

Intentional Learning Design for Educational Games: A Workflow Supporting Novices and Experts

  1. … (2011). Production of Creative game-based learning Scenarios: A Handbook for Teachers. https://edtechbooks.org/-cmQp
  2. … Whitton (Eds.), Cases on digital game-based learning: Methods, models, and strategies (pp.…
  3. … behaviour. International Journal of game-based learning, 7(3), 63–73.
  4. … model. International Journal of game-based learning, 8(1), 52–73. https://edtechbooks.org/-ZFRS
  5. … (2011). Encouraging engagement in game-based learning. International Journal of Game-Based…
  6. Abbott, D. (2019a). game-based learning for postgraduates : An empirical study of an educational…
  7. … engagement, flow and immersion in game-based learning. Computers in Human Behavior, 54, 170-179.…
  8. … experience. This chapter proposes that game-based learning (GBL), with its focus on maintaining…
  9. … found in Production of Creative game-based learning Scenarios: A Handbook for Teachers (Torrente…

gamification

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … the authors describe designed gamification elements and make explicit connections…

Flow Theory and Learning Experience Design in Gamified Learning Environments

  1. … associated with engagement and gamification is flow theory, also known as optimal…
  2. … faculty’s engagement using gamification elements and flow theory within the course…
  3. … the online PD used additional gamification elements (badging, leaderboard, content…
  4. Buckley, P., & Doyle, E. (2016). gamification and student motivation. Interactive Learning…
  5. … Chinese language learning with gamification and using mnemonic method. Procedia Computer…
  6. … K., & Specht, M. (2018). Get gamification of MOOC right! International Journal of…
  7. … to explore the degree to which gamification can improve learning outcomes within higher…
  8. … J. (2015). An introduction to gamification: Adding game elements for engagement. Medical…
  9. … understanding the effects of individual gamification elements on intrinsic motivation…
  10. … M.-S., & Chuang, T.-Y. (2016). How gamification motivates visits and engagement for…
  11. … to examine the relationship of gamification's competitive aspect to increased flow…
  12. … using elements of flow theory and gamification.
  13. … D. A. (2015). Applying basic gamification techniques to IT compliance training: Evidence…
  14. … load and learning anxiety in gamification software engineering education: A structural…
  15. … development also explained the various gamification elements added to the course (badging,…
  16. … positive effect that competitive gamification features, such as a leaderboard, has…
  17. … experiment on the effects of gamification. Computers in Human Behavior, 71, 469–478.
  18. … evidence supported the idea that gamification can be used to engage faculty in professional…
  19. … Angelova, G., & Others. (2015). gamification in education: A systematic mapping study.…
  20. … theory were applied towards the gamification of a professional development course.…
  21. … (2015). Assessing the effects of gamification in the classroom: A longitudinal study…
  22. … I. J. (2016). Effectiveness of gamification in the engagement of students. Computers…
  23. … design case was limited to the gamification features of badging, award certificate,…

Heuristic evaluation

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. 4.5. Heuristic evaluation
  2. Nielsen, J. (1994). Heuristic evaluation. In J. Nielsen & R. L. Mack (Eds.), Usability inspection…
  3. … (QM) can be used for guiding Heuristic evaluations (MarylandOnline, Inc, 2018). QM provides…
  4. Heuristic evaluation is an inspection method that does not involve directly working with the…

Sociotechnical-Pedagogical Usability for Designing and Evaluating Learner Experience in Technology-Enhanced Environments

  1. Nielsen, J. (1994b). Heuristic evaluation. In J. Nielsen & R. Mack (Eds.), Usability inspection…
  2. Albion, P. (1999). Heuristic evaluation of educational multimedia: From theory to practice.…

human-centered

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … disciplines leaning towards more human-centered approaches to design, could this signal…
  2. … (a) learning experience, (b) human-centeredness, (c) goal-orientation, and (d) design.…

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. … contemporary. Synthesis Lectures on human-centered Informatics, 5(2), 1–129. https://edtechbooks.org/-VBxB

Paradigms of Knowledge Production in Human-Computer Interaction: Towards a Framing for Learner Experience (LX) Design

  1. … resonate strongly with trends of human-centered design within HCI, UX is not generally…
  2. … job title umbrella relating to human-centered design, its lack of precise origin means…

Sociotechnical-Pedagogical Usability for Designing and Evaluating Learner Experience in Technology-Enhanced Environments

  1. … equally important in fostering human-centered learning processes. However, a factor…

Learning Experience Design: Challenges for Novice Designers

  1. … project-based learning) is employed for a human-centered, goal-oriented, learning experience.…
  2. … empathy towards the learners, and human-centeredness that considers not only what the…
  3. … defined as designing learning as a human-centered experience that leads to a desired…
  4. human-centered
  5. … terms of learning experience, human-centered, goal-oriented, and design.
  6. … practice of designing learning as a human-centered experience that leads to a desired…
  7. … elements of learning experience, human-centeredness, and goal-orientedness serve as…
  8. … lacks considerations for the human-centeredness of LXD. Our novice relies on sparse…
  9. … important considerations for human-centered, goal-oriented, learning experiences.
  10. … with insufficient support for human-centered and goal-oriented considerations.
  11. 2.2. human-centered
  12. … emphasizes the importance of human-centered considerations for diverse learners' needs,…
  13. … and interactions imbued in the human-centered, goal-oriented, learning experience. Iterative…
  14. … behind the phenomenon, leading to human-centered inquiries. This subsequently allows…
  15. … and satisfying (Wilson, 2005). human-centered LXD includes empathetic understanding…

The Role of Needs Assessment to Validate Contextual Factors Related to User Experience Design Practices

  1. … evolved. Synthesis Lectures on human-centered Informatics, 7(4), 1–91.

Intentional Learning Design for Educational Games: A Workflow Supporting Novices and Experts

  1. … dedicated to foregrounding a human-centered, personal experience, which acknowledges…

Supporting Equity in Schools: Using Visual Learning Analytics to Understand Learners’ Classroom Experiences

  1. Norman, D. A. (2005). human-centered design considered harmful. Interactions, 12(4),…
  2. … started exploring and adopting human-centered or user experience design methods for…
  3. … emphasized the importance of human-centered design (HCD) methods being incorporated…

human-centered design (HCD)

Supporting Equity in Schools: Using Visual Learning Analytics to Understand Learners’ Classroom Experiences

  1. … emphasized the importance of human-centered design (HCD) methods being incorporated in the field…

human-computer interaction (HCI)

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … of methods and processes from human-computer interaction (HCI), UX, and UCD in LIDT, but are doing so…

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. … Long recognized in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI), such adjustments, accommodations, and…

Paradigms of Knowledge Production in Human-Computer Interaction: Towards a Framing for Learner Experience (LX) Design

  1. … at the intersections of LDT, human-computer interaction (HCI), and design, with particular areas of focus…
  2. … systems birthed the field of human-computer interaction (HCI), concretized through shared interest among…
  3. … disciplinary traditions, including human-computer interaction (HCI), interaction design (IxD), cognitive…

Sociotechnical-Pedagogical Usability for Designing and Evaluating Learner Experience in Technology-Enhanced Environments

  1. … Trist & Bamforth, 1951). While human-computer interaction (HCI) research investigates person-technology…
  2. … learning design of the value of human-computer interaction (HCI) and daughter disciplines such as UX (Gray…

Learning Experience Design: Challenges for Novice Designers

  1. … related design fields such as human-computer interaction (HCI), architecture, product design, and software…

From Engagement to User Experience: A Theoretical Perspective Towards Immersive Learning

  1. … on user experience (UX) from human-computer interaction (HCI). Both perspectives depend on engaging users…

hypothesis testing

Theories of Change in Learning Experience (LX) Design

  1. 4.3. Preliminary hypothesis testing
  2. 4.5. Further hypothesis testing
  3. hypothesis testing is key to designing impactful interventions and can be continued past…

immersive technology

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … conceptual design framework blending immersive technology and user/learner experience to impact…

From Engagement to User Experience: A Theoretical Perspective Towards Immersive Learning

  1. … engagement. Good usability within an immersive technology will blend seamlessly into the experience,…
  2. … community, presence as related to immersive technology has been hypothesized as highly influential…
  3. … framework, consisting of UX factors of immersive technology that indirectly lead to learner…
  4. … (Vorderer et al., 2004). With immersive technology, however, successful exposure leads to…
  5. … and geology increasingly use immersive technology based on the promise of several benefits…
  6. … the rapidly changing nature of immersive technology, it has been challenging to formalize…
  7. … architectural education where immersive technology has been effectively implemented to improve…
  8. … framework applies not only one immersive technology but two. Nine Cube VR (Hopfenblatt & Balakrishnan,…
  9. … form of embodiment as found in immersive technology is the use of field trips and fieldwork,…
  10. immersive technology is becoming more affordable, leading to increases in adoption for education,…
  11. UX in the context of immersive technology additionally focuses on specific factors meant to…
  12. … increase and decrease UX factors of immersive technology, suggesting a need for balance in…
  13. … theoretical linkages as UX from immersive technology: involvement, motivation, and usability.
  14. … Framework for UX and Learning in immersive technology for Learner Engagement
  15. … two broad perspectives towards immersive technology in learning; one is focused on learning…
  16. … involvement of the senses through immersive technology provides the learner with a greater…
  17. … learning experience using any immersive technology. Representational abstraction (technology…
  18. … architecture students, we utilized immersive technology in the form of VR because design students…
  19. … provide a simplified table of immersive technology types and the technical and spatial attributes…
  20. … describing the role of UX in immersive technology and how it leads to learning, drawing from…
  21. … further clarify what we mean by immersive technology in the context of VR. From Google Cardboard…
  22. … capability (Bowman & McMahan, 2007). immersive technology allows students to view and interact…
  23. … outcome often associated with immersive technology (Dede, 2009). Stemming from a broader concept…
  24. Learning through immersive technology has focused primarily on a constructivist approach (Bricken,…
  25. … tendency in education to implement immersive technology and focus exclusively on either learning…
  26. … that is presented through the immersive technology. Representational abstractions come in…
  27. … be ignored. Users experiencing immersive technology for the first time can experience an overwhelming…
  28. … central to UX in the context of immersive technology. In the spatial disciplines, we can focus…
  29. … using their own body. In newer immersive technology, physical movement is now tracked, enabling…
  30. … cognitive learning approach. Lastly, immersive technology has only recently started to facilitate…

instructional design (ID)

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … well-established practices of instructional design (ID), authors Stefaniak and Sentz position needs…
  2. … largely siloed. A great deal of instructional design (ID) projects can be described as multidisciplinary.…

Learning Experience Design: Challenges for Novice Designers

  1. … traditional field of learning design, instructional design (ID), over hundreds of ID models have…

interaction design

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … ID, empathy/emotional design, interaction design, and game design. Abbott elaborates on…

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. … way, content, visual design, and interaction design can all be tested before any actual…
  2. … analysis of user interviews. interaction design Foundation. https://edtechbooks.org/-PRHn

Paradigms of Knowledge Production in Human-Computer Interaction: Towards a Framing for Learner Experience (LX) Design

  1. … through design as a method for interaction design research in HCI. Proceedings of the SIGCHI…
  2. … Transcending disciplinary boundaries in interaction design. Interactions, 16(5), 48–51.…
  3. … human-computer interaction (HCI), interaction design (IxD), cognitive psychology, and human…

The Role of Needs Assessment to Validate Contextual Factors Related to User Experience Design Practices

  1. … experience: An early framework for interaction designers. Proceedings of DIS 2000: Designing…

Intentional Learning Design for Educational Games: A Workflow Supporting Novices and Experts

  1. … iterations of all steps within the interaction design category shown in Figure 1.
  2. … expertise spanning game design, interaction design, and pedagogy (Bellotti et al., 2013),…
  3. … smiley model as a framework. interaction design and Architecture(s), 29(1), 52–75. https://edtechbooks.org/-tbK
  4. … interactions is woven into both interaction design within GBL and the affordances of the…
  5. … Empathy/Emotional Design, progress into interaction design, and culminate in Game Design…

interviews

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. … be recruited for key informant interviews with the purpose of gathering specific…
  2. … do a thematic analysis of user interviews. Interaction Design Foundation. https://edtechbooks.org/-PRHn
  3. … (e.g., surveys, focus groups, interviews, observations) and assessing user needs…
  4. … artifacts, records notes, and performs interviews. In this phase, the researcher…
  5. … In order to create a persona, interviews or observations should gather information…

Theories of Change in Learning Experience (LX) Design

  1. … collaborators to conduct semi-structured interviews with young adults, schoolteachers…
  2. … build upon insights from these interviews, team members also developed surveys through…
  3. … Through cognitive task analysis interviews with expert educators, the team developed…
  4. … and 5th-graders. Stakeholder interviews with teachers and curriculum standards helped…

The Design Implementation Framework: Guiding Principles for the Redesign of a Reading Comprehension Intelligent Tutoring System

  1. … conducted several focus groups and interviews with teachers who were using iSTART…
  2. … think-aloud, we conducted retrospective interviews to gain additional insights into…

Integrating Learner and User Experience Design: A Bidirectional Approach

  1. … functionality. Like other informational interviews, these conversations framed and…

Supporting Equity in Schools: Using Visual Learning Analytics to Understand Learners’ Classroom Experiences

  1. Cognitive interviews helped us, as designers of the SEETs, validate our view of visual…
  2. … teaching. Think aloud and cognitive interviews were conducted simultaneously in…
  3. … then participated in cognitive interviews (Fisher & Geiselman, 1992). Cognitive…
  4. … conducted four types of design interviews (generative card sorting exercises, semi-structured…
  5. The cognitive interviews enabled our research team to gather evidence on how cognizant…
  6. … procedures for conducting cognitive interviews to pretest questionnaires: A review…
  7. … the objectivity of cognitive interviews. In N. C. Tucker (Eds.), Proceedings of…

learner analysis

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … narrow—often only focusing on learner analysis—and fail to conceive of learners as…

Paradigms of Knowledge Production in Human-Computer Interaction: Towards a Framing for Learner Experience (LX) Design

  1. … typical ID phase or method (e.g., learner analysis; Gray, 2015). Much of this richness…

The Role of Needs Assessment to Validate Contextual Factors Related to User Experience Design Practices

  1. … be minimized to focus more on learner analysis. The goal of every needs assessment is…
  2. … design field would refer to as a learner analysis. learner analysis is focused on gathering…
  3. … analysis; contextual analysis; and learner analysis. The purpose of a needs assessment…

learner experience

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … on the theory and practice of learner experience (LX) and user experience (UX) in the field…
  2. … Interaction: Towards a Framing for learner experience (LX) Design, conceives of LX design…
  3. … example, learning experience and learner experience are both referred to as LX. What do…
  4. … creating positive and enjoyable learner experiences. To this end, the authors situate their…
  5. … Sociotechnical-Pedagogical Usability for Evaluating learner experience in Technology-Enhanced…
  6. … present UX as the intersection of learner experience and pedagogical usability. In addition…
  7. … immersive technology and user/learner experience to impact learner engagement. The authors…

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. … approaches to support positive learner experience in digital environments. To this end,…
  2. … the likelihood for a positive learner experience.
  3. … promising in supporting a positive learner experience. However, given the iterative nature…
  4. … likelihood to promote a positive learner experience than a course that is organized based…
  5. … insights along the dimensions of learner experience outlined above. These can serve as the…
  6. … a potentially more effective learner experience was uncovered.
  7. … that can be used to improve the learner experience for this learning module.
  8. … culturally sensitive and diverse learner experience. However, developing personas of, for…
  9. … likelihood of a more positive learner experience. In addition, after designs are approved,…
  10. … judiciously is paramount for a positive learner experience.
  11. … are more appropriate to overall learner experience, while others focus more specifically…

Paradigms of Knowledge Production in Human-Computer Interaction: Towards a Framing for Learner Experience (LX) Design

  1. … conceptual boundaries for a future learner experience (LX) design role. As is already the…
  2. … knowledge in the creation of learner experiences in many educational forms and contexts,…
  3. … Dewey, 1934/2005) to guide user/learner experiences, and both have a range of scholarship…
  4. 5. Toward a Definition of learner experience (LX) Design
  5. … June 20). UX to LX: The Rise of learner experience Design - EdSurge News. EdSurge. https://edtechbooks.org/-wwV
  6. … emergence of a transdisciplinary learner experience (LX) designer role, attempting to align—or…

Sociotechnical-Pedagogical Usability for Designing and Evaluating Learner Experience in Technology-Enhanced Environments

  1. … pedagogical and social dimensions of learner experience, a complex and interconnected view…
  2. … social and pedagogical aspects of learner experience. We coin this multidimensional usability…
  3. … recommendations for supporting learner experience in active student-centered learning environments
  4. 2.1. Toward learner experience Evaluation: Extending Technological Usability to Consider…
  5. … necessary to foster a positive learner experience. The social dimension includes sociality…
  6. … course delivery system affects the learner experience. Systems that have higher technological…
  7. … evaluating and improving the learner experience (LX) with learning technologies (Earnshaw…
  8. … not sufficient for the whole learner experience, the pedagogical dimension considers (a)…
  9. … so as to positively influence learner experience in online or hybrid learning arrangements.…
  10. … pedagogical and social dimensions of learner experience. Meaningful technology-mediated…
  11. Traditionally, learner experience studies have focused principally on technological usability.…
  12. … technical and pedagogical aspects of learner experience to better understand the overall…
  13. … the social dimensions of the learner experience.
  14. … established three dimensions of learner experience in the sections above (the technological,…
  15. … evaluation to exploring and assessing learner experience; (b) provide a nuanced approach…

The Role of Needs Assessment to Validate Contextual Factors Related to User Experience Design Practices

  1. … imagining the cognitive and emotional learner experience. Educational Technology Research…

From Engagement to User Experience: A Theoretical Perspective Towards Immersive Learning

  1. … Sweller, J. (2000). Incorporating learner experience into the design of multimedia instruction.…
  2. … theoretical perspective of the user and learner experience. Our perceptions of technology…
  3. … learning scenario. Similar to UX, learner experience is based on an allocation of attention…

Intentional Learning Design for Educational Games: A Workflow Supporting Novices and Experts

  1. … frontier game : A case study on learner experience. In B. McLaren, R. Reilly, S. Zvacek,…
  2. … Rosencheck, 2015) and emphasizes that learner experience is crucial to maintaining relevance…
  3. … Imagining the cognitive and emotional learner experience. Educational Technology Research…
  4. … up. Throughout the workflow, learner experience is at the centre of the process. Reflection…
  5. Jagger, P. (2016). The dawn of learner experience design. ITNOW, 58(3), 52–53. https://edtechbooks.org/-MJN
  6. … A. (2015). PALX : Player and learner experience design: Can we design for both? CHItaly…

Participatory Design and Co-Design—The Case of a MOOC on Public Innovation

  1. … e-learning activities (in terms of learner experience) and to enrich the practices of the…
  2. … Strategies for enhancing the learner experience and quality of MOOCs. Revista de Educación…
  3. From our perspective, learner experience design (LXD) is not only based on the learning experience…
  4. … Stappers, 2008, 2014) enhanced the learner experience in three ways: a) by creating a pre-tested…
  5. … Design Teams’ Reflection on learner experience Design (LXD) From a Professional Development…

Supporting Equity in Schools: Using Visual Learning Analytics to Understand Learners’ Classroom Experiences

  1. … learners’ data. Readily interpretable learner experience data can promote increased use…
  2. Understanding learner experience through a variety of quantifying methods can help in promoting…
  3. … visualizations of disaggregated learner experience data (see Figure 3). Most of the teachers…
  4. … teaching. Given the abundance of learner experience data that can potentially be made available,…

Think-Aloud Observations to Improve Online Course Design: A Case Example and “How-to” Guide

  1. … situated within the contexts of learner experience and pedagogical usability. Second, a…
  2. … online course design assumes a learner experience paradigm, which at its core emphasizes…
  3. 2. UX, learner experience, and Pedagogical Usability
  4. … importantly distinct from both learner experience and UX is that of pedagogical usability,…
  5. … a more thorough review of the learner experience literature to properly situate it in the…
  6. … within this context, some of the learner experiences are inseparable from their experiences…
  7. … of how UX intersects with both learner experience and pedagogical usability. This chapter…
  8. … UX in the broader contexts of learner experience and pedagogical usability. Next, it presented…

learner experience design (LXD)

Sociotechnical-Pedagogical Usability for Designing and Evaluating Learner Experience in Technology-Enhanced Environments

  1. … in any context for any user. learner experience design (LXD), however, has a narrower focus on improving…

Participatory Design and Co-Design—The Case of a MOOC on Public Innovation

  1. … Design Teams’ Reflection on learner experience design (LXD) From a Professional Development Perspective
  2. From our perspective, learner experience design (LXD) is not only based on the learning experience related…

learner-centered design

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … designers seeking to engage in learner-centered design and research.

Theories of Change in Learning Experience (LX) Design

  1. … on the learner is key to our learner-centered design philosophy. While keeping the learner at…

Learning Experience Design: Challenges for Novice Designers

  1. … extends such considerations with learner-centered design, shifting focus from instruction to…

Integrating Learner and User Experience Design: A Bidirectional Approach

  1. … especially important to consider in learner-centered design (Quintana et al., 2001). Learners…
  2. … process (Cooper, 2004). While learner-centered design practitioners create learning experiences…
  3. … Understanding the importance of learner-centered design is beneficial for UXDs working on projects…
  4. An original goal of learner-centered design was to describe how technology-enhanced designs for…
  5. … an account of the origins of learner-centered design and contrast it with user-centered design.…
  6. … Exploring a structured definition for learner-centered design. In B. Fishman & S. O'Connor-Divelbiss…
  7. … Krajcik, J., & Soloway, E. (2001). learner-centered design: Reflections and new directions. In…
  8. One outcome of a learner-centered design approach is tools designed to facilitate the development…
  9. … Guzdial, M., & Hay, K. (1994). learner-centered design: The challenge for HCI in the 21st century.…
  10. … observed a key difference between learner-centered design and user-centered design: in the former,…

Supporting Equity in Schools: Using Visual Learning Analytics to Understand Learners’ Classroom Experiences

  1. … building on these ideals to promote learner-centered design (Soloway et al., 1994), including…
  2. … Guzdial, M., & Hay, K. (1994). learner-centered design: The challenge for HCI in the 21st century.…

learning design

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … terms like LX, LXD, LCD, and learning design have been readily adopted, it is unclear…
  2. … heuristics is provided to help learning designers apply the proposed framework. Firmly…
  3. … acknowledges the vital role of theory in learning design, but cautions that privileging…
  4. … literacies, instructional and learning designers do not necessarily need to individually…
  5. … authors present their vision for learning design as a bidirectional interplay between…
  6. … Centered Design and Evaluation for learning designers, authors Schmidt, Earnshaw, Tawfik,…
  7. … multiplicity of perspectives learning designers must consider when seeking to perform…
  8. … endeavors at the intersection of learning design, UX, HCI, and associated disciplines…
  9. … UX testing methods applied to learning design and contributes to our understanding of…
  10. … introduction for the field of learning design & Technology.  https://edtechbooks.org/ux
  11. … design would be impossible for learning designers to reasonably master. Therefore, establishing…
  12. … interventions. Abbott’s Intentional learning design for Educational Games: A Workflow…
  13. … volume in Abbott’s Intentional learning design for Educational Games.
  14. … increasingly are being applied in learning design contexts (Baek et al., 2008; Barab…
  15. Secondly, although learning designers are applying methods and processes of UCD in their…
  16. … suggestions are provided for novice learning designers. While this chapter’s relatable…

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. From the perspective of learning design, eye-tracking and EEG-based user testing are typically…
  2. … Data-based requirements (a) help learning designers avoid the pitfall of applying ready-made…
  3. … theory is especially helpful for learning design because it provides a framework to understand…
  4. … significant traction in the field of learning design due to advances in machine learning…
  5. … by the effective instructional/learning design of learning materials (hereafter referred…
  6. For example, a learning designer developing a course in a LMS can benefit from rapid prototyping…
  7. … specific examples of how to approach learning design using methods and processes commonly…
  8. … Personas are especially helpful for learning designers in considering cultural diversity.…
  9. For learning designers developing online courses, established quality metrics such as…
  10. … This extends to the field of learning design and instructional design and technology…
  11. learning designers do not frequently have access to large numbers of learners for A/B…
  12. For example, learning designers developing a course in an LMS often incorporate multiple…
  13. … ethnography can be applied in learning design is in the development of learner personas.…
  14. … historically on theories that guide learning design (e.g., scaffolding, sociocultural…
  15. … remember. From the perspective of learning design, these design factors are used strategically…
  16. … limited resources provided to learning designers, think-aloud user testing is particularly…
  17. … sorting is particularly useful for learning designers creating courses in learning management…
  18. … Prototyping is a useful skill for all learning designers, including those who create…
  19. … tool for the early stages of a learning design project. The rapid prototyping approach…
  20. … incorporated into the tools of the learning design trade, including LMSs, video conferencing…
  21. In learning design, the CW is particularly valuable when working in teams that consist…
  22. … designers in an introductory learning design course using a template. The design context…
  23. … methodologies can be used in a learning design context. These can be applied during various…
  24. … learners in later stages of the learning design process, allowing for tweaks and refinements…
  25. … valuable insight to situate the learning design process. While the design of learning…
  26. … personas and prototypes, the learning design process becomes iterative, dynamic, and…
  27. For example, a learning designer planning to create a learning object using an authoring…
  28. For example, a learning designer developing an undergraduate introduction to nuclear engineering…
  29. … to more intentionally bridge learning design and user-centered design approaches to support…
  30. … impedes meaningful learning. From a learning design perspective, poor usability might…
  31. For example, imagine that a learning designer has received approval on a wireframe set…

Paradigms of Knowledge Production in Human-Computer Interaction: Towards a Framing for Learner Experience (LX) Design

  1. … designers to deal with formal learning design challenges? Should LX become an umbrella…

Theories of Change in Learning Experience (LX) Design

  1. … effective theory of change for learning design, we need to have answers to three key…
  2. … development, analysis, and refinement of learning designs.
  3. … their successive iterations in learning design, and their repeated testing with targeted…

Sociotechnical-Pedagogical Usability for Designing and Evaluating Learner Experience in Technology-Enhanced Environments

  1. … centered design and evaluation for learning designers. In M. Schmidt, A. A. Tawfik, I.…
  2. … social and pedagogical factors in learning design. The pedagogical dimension involves…
  3. Increasingly, researchers of learning design are applying methods from usability and user…
  4. … person-technology relationships, learning design must consider not only the technological…
  5. … instructional designers, and learning designers do not develop new learning technologies…
  6. … increasing recognition in the field of learning design of the value of human-computer…
  7. … evaluating technology-mediated learning designs and then remediating those flaws. We…
  8. … of usability in the context of learning design; (c) stratify learner experience in technology-mediated…
  9. … checklists like these enable learning designers to interrogate the features and affordances…

Learning Experience Design: Challenges for Novice Designers

  1. … design (Crismond & Adams, 2012), learning design (Jonassen, 2008), and design in general…
  2. … understand the nature and process of learning design and concrete suggestions to implement…
  3. … conceptualization and practice of learning design.
  4. … the process by which they solve learning design problems.
  5. … Novice Designers Problem-Solve learning designs
  6. At heart, learning design is an ill-structured problem-solving activity (Ertmer et al.,…
  7. Ill-structured problems, such as learning design problems, are by nature without single…
  8. … conceptualize, define, and practice learning design has changed over the decades in relation…
  9. … Expert Designers Problem-Solve learning designs
  10. In the traditional field of learning design, Instructional Design (ID), over hundreds…

The Role of Needs Assessment to Validate Contextual Factors Related to User Experience Design Practices

  1. … K. (2017). Empathy in distance learning design practice. TechTrends, 61(5), 486–493.

From Engagement to User Experience: A Theoretical Perspective Towards Immersive Learning

  1. … can conceptualize its role in learning design. Presence helps to achieve situatedness,…
  2. … synthetic one for VR. According to learning design, the content and context must be defined…

Intentional Learning Design for Educational Games: A Workflow Supporting Novices and Experts

  1. … guided workflow for intentional learning design for educational games, which draws on…

Integrating Learner and User Experience Design: A Bidirectional Approach

  1. … for a bidirectional approach to learning design through the presentation of two design…
  2. … integrating UX approaches into the learning design process. Many instructors are not…
  3. … incorporating new UX tools into a learning design process, opportunities for reflection…

Supporting Equity in Schools: Using Visual Learning Analytics to Understand Learners’ Classroom Experiences

  1. … diverse perspectives. The Emerging learning design Journal, 6(1). https://edtechbooks.org/-khkB

Think-Aloud Observations to Improve Online Course Design: A Case Example and “How-to” Guide

  1. … literature that emphasizes how online learning design requires more than the implementation…

learning experience

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. Flow Theory and learning experience Design in Gamified Learning Environments by Vann and Tawfik…
  2. … be an advocate for appropriate learning experiences throughout the entire process and work…
  3. The chapter learning experience Design: Challenges for Novice Designers follows with a conceptual…
  4. … chapter Theories of Change in learning experience (LX) Design, authors Bowen, Forssell, and…
  5. … without precision. For example, learning experience and learner experience are both referred…

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. … model for developing the best learning experiences. American Society for Training and Development.
  2. … that tools not only mediate the learning experience but that learning processes are often…

Paradigms of Knowledge Production in Human-Computer Interaction: Towards a Framing for Learner Experience (LX) Design

  1. … learner and context in aesthetic learning experiences. In B. Hokanson, G. Clinton, & M. W.…

Theories of Change in Learning Experience (LX) Design

  1. … clarify and guide our work in learning experience (LX) research and design.
  2. … experience design (UX design) and learning experience design (LX design). Both are guided…
  3. … should drive user testing. As learning experience designers, the focus on theory prompts…
  4. … drive the process of designing learning experiences. Those theories that designers hold about…
  5. … tools depend through deliberate learning experience (LX) design.

Flow Theory and Learning Experience Design in Gamified Learning Environments

  1. 2.2. learning experience Design and Flow Theory in Game-Based Learning
  2. 2.1. Dimensions of Flow in learning experience Design (LXD)
  3. … this flaw in the PD's potential learning experience. Furthermore, the design case also suggests…
  4. … experience. As it relates to learning experience design, interfaces should be designed to…
  5. … implementation of this construct through learning experience design allows the learner to…
  6. … has been placed on the role of learning experience design (LXD). That is, how the interface…
  7. … autonomy and control over the learning experience. Research has shown a direct link between…

Sociotechnical-Pedagogical Usability for Designing and Evaluating Learner Experience in Technology-Enhanced Environments

  1. … using it will lead to a positive learning experience or promote learning outcomes. The pedagogical…
  2. … designs will promote positive learning experiences. This congruence is represented in Figure…
  3. … the field’s understanding of learning experience design in that they (a) acknowledge the…

Learning Experience Design: Challenges for Novice Designers

  1. … of importance to the resulting learning experience. The expert also questions specific parameters…
  2. … human-centered, goal-oriented, learning experience. Of key importance is how the expert's…
  3. … LXD, the focus of design is the learning experience rather than the learning tools or materials.…
  4. … through personally meaningful learning experiences. The resulting design is a complex system…
  5. learning experience design, defined as designing learning as a human-centered experience that…
  6. … novice LX designers in terms of learning experience, human-centered, goal-oriented, and design.
  7. … supports personally meaningful learning experience emerging through dynamic interactions…
  8. … recognizes multiple, equally effective learning experiences to support diverse and emerging…
  9. … presents a working definition of learning experience design as a practice of designing learning…
  10. 2.1. learning experience
  11. … requires designers to create learning experiences, defined as experiences through which learners…
  12. 2. Defining learning experience Design
  13. … solutions. The LX elements of learning experience, human-centeredness, and goal-orientedness…
  14. … resources that allow multiple learning experiences. Novice designers are challenged in conceptualizing…
  15. … problem space may not consider the learning experience despite its importance among factors…
  16. … learners in meaningful and varied learning experiences. Also, they must reason how to provide…
  17. … human-centered, goal-oriented, learning experiences.
  18. learning experienceIn LXD the learning experience that helps learners construct personally…
  19. … offer suggestions for novice learning experience designers on how to approach LXD based on…
  20. learning experience Design (LXD) is an attempt to integrate design practice from related design…
  21. … fully determine or control the learning experience. Rather, they design, prepare and integrate…
  22. … human-centered, goal-oriented, learning experience. Iterative in their approach, experts…

The Role of Needs Assessment to Validate Contextual Factors Related to User Experience Design Practices

  1. … contextual analysis poses for the learning experience (Tessmer, 1991; Tessmer & Harris, 1990;…

From Engagement to User Experience: A Theoretical Perspective Towards Immersive Learning

  1. … heighten investment with the learning experience. Understanding the relationship between…
  2. … commonly found in real-world learning experiences (e.g., weather, crowds, etc.; Robinson,…
  3. … user’s body being involved in the learning experience. The closest form of embodiment as…
  4. … main components of a curated learning experience using any immersive technology. Representational…
  5. … learner engagement. Keeping the learning experience consistently new can help stimulate a…
  6. … the connection between UX and learning experiences through immersive technology, we look…
  7. … degree of interaction even if the learning experience is primarily designed as a passive…

Intentional Learning Design for Educational Games: A Workflow Supporting Novices and Experts

  1. … (2014, January 30). Elements of learning experience design. Boxes and Arrows. https://edtechbooks.org/-AJSA
  2. … games on E-learning SMANAS based learning experience design. 2018 International Seminar on…
  3. Rosencheck, M. (2015). Becoming a learning experience designer. DevLearn 2015 Conference.…
  4. learning experience design (LXD) is an approach that foregrounds learners and their desired…
  5. … analytics architecture to scaffold learning experience through technology-based methods.…
  6. … hearing, and seeing during the learning experience?” (Plaut, 2014). Clearly, this question's…
  7. … effective: Accommodating productive learning experiences, learner motivation and the monitoring…
  8. … immersive and emotionally-engaging learning experience as learners pursue their own particular…
  9. … metaphor for immersive environments: learning experience design challenges and opportunities.…
  10. Floor, N. (2018). learning experience Design. https://lxd.org

Integrating Learner and User Experience Design: A Bidirectional Approach

  1. … design of educational tools and learning experiences. In a future where career paths and…
  2. … describing a learner audience's online learning experiences, even in advance of course launch.…
  3. As online learning experiences become more common in higher education, professional development,…
  4. … intended to support the design of learning experiences because they are unclear about their…
  5. … first design case, we explore how learning experience (LX) considerations motivated the development…
  6. … Designing for technology-enhanced learning experiences. In K. Norma & J. Kirakowsky (Eds.),…
  7. … learners with previous online learning experience to participate in a 30 minute test. After…
  8. … learner-centered, research-informed online learning experiences. They also observe and identify…

Participatory Design and Co-Design—The Case of a MOOC on Public Innovation

  1. … achieve two goals: a) Enhancing the learning experience of end-users and b) contributing…
  2. … (LXD) is not only based on the learning experience related to technology (ergonomic, design,…
  3. … teams: a) one sharing its own learning experiences in MOOCs to identify positive and negative…

Supporting Equity in Schools: Using Visual Learning Analytics to Understand Learners’ Classroom Experiences

  1. … rich bodies of information on learning experiences, but developing and applying suitable…
  2. … which they are engaged. Coherent learning experiences appear connected from the students’…
  3. learning experience design is an interdisciplinary and evolving field (Ahn, 2019). Prior research…
  4. … (2019). Drawing inspiration for learning experience design (LX) from diverse perspectives.…

Think-Aloud Observations to Improve Online Course Design: A Case Example and “How-to” Guide

  1. … more important elements of the learning experience. As working practitioners who conducted…
  2. … B. G., & Dunlap, J. C. (2011). learning experience as transaction: A framework for instructional…

learning experience design

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. The chapter learning experience design: Challenges for Novice Designers follows with a conceptual…
  2. Flow Theory and learning experience design in Gamified Learning Environments by Vann and Tawfik acknowledges…

Theories of Change in Learning Experience (LX) Design

  1. … experience design (UX design) and learning experience design (LX design). Both are guided by theories…
  2. … should drive user testing. As learning experience designers, the focus on theory prompts us to build…

Flow Theory and Learning Experience Design in Gamified Learning Environments

  1. 2.2. learning experience design and Flow Theory in Game-Based Learning
  2. 2.1. Dimensions of Flow in learning experience design (LXD)
  3. … experience. As it relates to learning experience design, interfaces should be designed to experience…
  4. … implementation of this construct through learning experience design allows the learner to know what…
  5. … has been placed on the role of learning experience design (LXD). That is, how the interface design…

Sociotechnical-Pedagogical Usability for Designing and Evaluating Learner Experience in Technology-Enhanced Environments

  1. … the field’s understanding of learning experience design in that they (a) acknowledge the utility…

Learning Experience Design: Challenges for Novice Designers

  1. … offer suggestions for novice learning experience designers on how to approach LXD based on the expertise…
  2. learning experience design (LXD) is an attempt to integrate design practice from related design fields…
  3. learning experience design, defined as designing learning as a human-centered experience that leads…
  4. … presents a working definition of learning experience design as a practice of designing learning…
  5. 2. Defining learning experience design

Intentional Learning Design for Educational Games: A Workflow Supporting Novices and Experts

  1. Rosencheck, M. (2015). Becoming a learning experience designer. DevLearn 2015 Conference. eLearning…
  2. learning experience design (LXD) is an approach that foregrounds learners and their desired outcomes…
  3. … metaphor for immersive environments: learning experience design challenges and opportunities. OSTI.…
  4. Floor, N. (2018). learning experience design. https://lxd.org
  5. … (2014, January 30). Elements of learning experience design. Boxes and Arrows. https://edtechbooks.org/-AJSA
  6. … games on E-learning SMANAS based learning experience design. 2018 International Seminar on Research…

Integrating Learner and User Experience Design: A Bidirectional Approach

  1. … interesting opportunities for learning experience designers (LXDs) and User Experience Designers…
  2. … methodology) became part of one learning experience design team’s toolkit for developing online…

Supporting Equity in Schools: Using Visual Learning Analytics to Understand Learners’ Classroom Experiences

  1. … (2019). Drawing inspiration for learning experience design (LX) from diverse perspectives. The Emerging…
  2. learning experience design is an interdisciplinary and evolving field (Ahn, 2019). Prior research…

learning technology

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … positive score in regards to a learning technology’s ease of use, ultimately it could have…
  2. … Martinez-Segura, M. J. (2013). Mobile learning technology based on iOS devices to support…
  3. … technological usability of a given learning technology, but also the influence of pedagogical…

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. … this case, John) engages with a learning technology.
  2. … less emphasis has been placed on learning technology design from the view of HCI and UCD…

Flow Theory and Learning Experience Design in Gamified Learning Environments

  1. While much of the learning technology research is often focused on the student outcomes, less…

Sociotechnical-Pedagogical Usability for Designing and Evaluating Learner Experience in Technology-Enhanced Environments

  1. … only one type of technology—learning technology—from the perspective of only one type…
  2. … of this chapter is a view of learning technology usage as a new social practice of instructors,…
  3. … features and affordances of a given learning technology that positively influence learning.…

logic model

Theories of Change in Learning Experience (LX) Design

  1. … They can be seen as one kind of logic model. logic models outline the inputs, activities,…
  2. … & Jordan, G. B. (2004). Using logic models. Handbook of practical program evaluation,…
  3. … (2004). W. K. Kellogg Foundation logic model Development Guide. W. K. Kellogg Foundation.…

MOOC

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … and Co-design—the Case of a MOOC on Public Innovation, authors Cavignaux-Bros…

Flow Theory and Learning Experience Design in Gamified Learning Environments

  1. … M. (2018). Get gamification of MOOC right! International Journal of Serious…

Sociotechnical-Pedagogical Usability for Designing and Evaluating Learner Experience in Technology-Enhanced Environments

  1. … Perera, I., & Fernando, S. (2020). MOOCs Lack Interactivity and Collaborativeness:…

Integrating Learner and User Experience Design: A Bidirectional Approach

  1. … instructors’ experiences with developing MOOCs. The International Review…
  2. … peer feedback possibilities for MOOC learners. U of M: Center for Academic…
  3. … Mustain, P. (2016). Learning in MOOCs: Motivations and self-regulated learning…

Participatory Design and Co-Design—The Case of a MOOC on Public Innovation

  1. … which the first prototype of the MOOC's architecture was presented.
  2. … Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have gained in visibility. While the concept…
  3. 4.1. The MOOC Course Itself
  4. … they faced in a connectivist MOOC (Siemens, 2005): enabling collaboration/…
  5. … process and influencers during the MOOC implementation. The broadening involvement…
  6. … one external person joined the MOOC project team. The call for volunteers…
  7. The group working on the MOOC consisted of 10 participants, half of whom were…
  8. … emergence of the design of the MOOC, we will now focus on two co-design workshops…
  9. The MOOC was expected to give the rudiments of knowledge on the topic of public…
  10. … co-design and co-construction of the MOOC architecture, b) by committing that…
  11. Because of their previous MOOC experience, the Institution became a central…
  12. … objectives and their role in the MOOC: either reading, contributing, or recruiting…
  13. … meetings for the participants in the MOOC and finding inspiration from using…
  14. … came the idea of designing a MOOC on public innovation in a collaborative…
  15. The idea of a MOOC on public innovation was born from an opportunity to study…
  16. The MOOC features were discussed on a technical basis that both limited and…
  17. … or the learning process of the MOOC, but also implies a participation in the…
  18. … officers in charge of developing MOOCs in the Institution.
  19. Building MOOCs around online collaborative learning had the advantage of being…
  20. … interactions with online content, the MOOC's hybridization of face-to-face…
  21. … used to engineer a connectivist MOOC. In this context, connectivism is defined…
  22. … preparing an exhibition of the MOOC prototypes as initially planned, they…
  23. Though the accessibility of MOOCs embodies the learning principle "When and…
  24. Conole, G. (2013). MOOCs as disruptive technologies: Strategies for enhancing…
  25. … service de l’engagement dans un MOOC. L’Harmattan.
  26. … team researched the market's MOOC methodology; they found: a) MOOCs suffer…
  27. The MOOC was designed using different methods of instructional design and project…
  28. The co-design of this MOOC played a role in exploring new, hybrid end-users’…
  29. … and study of the design of the MOOC. We give some special thanks to Caroline…
  30. … participants’ experience as users of MOOCs, the variety of participants,…
  31. … Bruillard, É. (2013). Chronique des MOOC. STICEF (Sciences et Technologies…
  32. … prototype the macro-design of the MOOC. Public administration staff, Institution…
  33. 3. The Co-Design of the MOOC: Process and Means
  34. At the beginning of the MOOC, the course design offered participants to choose…
  35. … flexibility in the design of the MOOC. The complexity of the project consisted…
  36. … forward in the design of the MOOC and identify its functionalities. Two critical…
  37. 2.4. A MOOC Project Based on Collaborative Learning: Toward a New Generation…
  38. … participatory design to define the MOOC architecture (central column of figure…
  39. … storyboard of a teaser presenting the MOOC. One of the teams also imagined…
  40. … for videos, quizzes, programs, MOOC frameworks, etc. For instance, Personal…
  41. 2.2. MOOCs
  42. … June Session: Co-Design of the MOOC Architecture
  43. … (learner and promoters of the MOOC, in our case), being part of the design,…
  44. [2] https://www.fun-MOOC.fr
  45. … final product and design of the MOOC that were developed in June and July…
  46. 3.1. Emergence of the MOOC and Timeline of the Project
  47. … identify the target learners of the MOOC, to choose the pedagogical format,…
  48. … Innovation, the design team of the MOOC further adjusted the final design…
  49. … Laurillard, D. (2019). The potential of MOOCs for large-scale teacher professional…
  50. … Design of a Blended or Hybrid MOOC

needs analysis

The Role of Needs Assessment to Validate Contextual Factors Related to User Experience Design Practices

  1. … relating needs assessment and needs analysis. Performance Improvement, 35(10), 10–13.
  2. … This process begins during the needs analysis through the collection of relevant contextual…
  3. … work practice space. Through a needs analysis, the instructional designer can determine…
  4. 5. needs analysis and Contextual Analysis in User Experience Design
  5. … work environment. During the needs analysis, examination of the transfer context is…
  6. … include needs assessment and needs analysis; contextual analysis; and learner analysis.…

needs assessment

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … Stefaniak and Sentz position needs assessment as a way to validate contextual factors…

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. … (2014). A practical guide to needs assessment (3rd ed.). Pfeiffer.
  2. Rossett, A. (1987). Training needs assessment. Educational Technology Publications.

The Role of Needs Assessment to Validate Contextual Factors Related to User Experience Design Practices

  1. … during the initial phase of the needs assessment must be supported by sufficient data…
  2. … framework to assist with leveraging needs assessment outcomes to the UX design space (Figure…
  3. … contextual factors examined during the needs assessment to take into account the needs…
  4. … processes and products. While needs assessment is mentioned in a number of the instructional…
  5. … be yielded from completing a needs assessment to identify an appropriate infrastructure.
  6. … (1996). An update on relating needs assessment and needs analysis. Performance Improvement, 35(10),…
  7. Data derived from a needs assessment can guide the instructional designer on how to impose…
  8. A needs assessment can provide a mechanism to validate contextual factors, especially the…
  9. … oversees and guides the entire needs assessment, UX design, learning, and transfer processes.…
  10. … inputs that contribute to the needs assessment process. Examples of these inputs include…
  11. … These analyses often include needs assessment and needs analysis; contextual analysis;…
  12. … offers a framework for using needs assessment to validate contextual factors in user experience…
  13. … understanding the user's work practice, needs assessment further delves into identifying,…
  14. … & Christensen, B. D. (2019). needs assessment: Three approaches with one purpose. Performance…
  15. … Platt, W., & Kaufman, R. (1998). needs assessment—A digest, review, and comparison of…
  16. A needs assessment is recognized as being an important component of the instructional design…
  17. … (1995). Planning and conducting needs assessments: A practical guide. Sage.
  18. … chapter will emphasize the role of needs assessment as instructional designers validate…
  19. … transfer environment through a needs assessment, the task-related goals (and also the…
  20. The topics of UX and needs assessment can significantly benefit the instructional design…
  21. Altschuld, J.W., & Kumar, D.D. (2010). needs assessment: An overview. Sage.
  22. … experience design practices through a needs assessment.
  23. … K., & Merrill, P. F. (1991). needs assessment: Goals, needs, and priorities. In L. J. Briggs,…
  24. … hindering learner performance. needs assessment extends a further reach on assessing the…
  25. … practices, differentiate between needs assessment and contextual analysis as they relate…

novice

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … Experience Design: Challenges for novice Designers follows with a conceptual…
  2. … Games: A Workflow Supporting novices and Experts synthesizes a set of LX design…

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. … public schools that was created by novice designers in an introductory learning…

Theories of Change in Learning Experience (LX) Design

  1. … program, we have observed that novice designers tend to favor intuitive outcomes…
  2. … mistake all too common among novice designers. In both cases highlighted here,…

Learning Experience Design: Challenges for Novice Designers

  1. … implementations. However, in contrast to the novice, the expert uses this as…
  2. … relevant principles. In addition, novice designers are encouraged to contextualize…
  3. … not readily available to the novice designer. One particular learning method…
  4. … is much more flexible than the novice's and leaves room for learners to take…
  5. … physics problems by experts and novices. Cognitive Science, 5(2), 121–152.
  6. novice designers lack a clear understanding of the problem and they process the…
  7. In the caricature, we see our novice is limited when drawing relevant information…
  8. … practice poses challenges to the novice designers. LX designers must take a…
  9. … Y. (2010, June). A guide for novice researchers: Design and development research…
  10. novice designers exhibit difficulty identifying and defining meaningful problems…
  11. 3. novices and Experts: Problem-Solving and LXD
  12. … effect of usability sessions on novice software designers. Journal of Research…
  13. Stepich, D. (1991). From novice to Expert: Implications for Instructional Design.…
  14. … multiple learning experiences. novice designers are challenged in conceptualizing…
  15. … embedded in LXD, we invite the novice to reflect on their own internal beliefs,…
  16. Finally, to become experts in LXD novice designers need to shift from learning…
  17. … teach serious game design to novice designers. Proceedings of Ascilite 2009.…
  18. … personal goals may challenge novice designers.
  19. … efforts of instructional design novices. Performance Improvement Quarterly,…
  20. … S., & Keene, C. W. (2019). How novices use expert case libraries for problem…
  21. … (1995). Designer thinking: How novices and experts think about instructional…
  22. … response to challenges facing novice LX designers, the goal of this chapter…
  23. … fundamental differences between novice and expert designers. novice instructional…
  24. … Therefore, it's important for novice LX designers to deliberately test their…
  25. In our novice caricature, we can see how the designer conceptualizes the design…
  26. novice designers in the learning domain commonly exhibit difficulties understanding…
  27. In our caricature of the novice designer (Figure 1) the ability to focus only…
  28. … poses added challenges to the novice designers regarding their prior assumptions…
  29. … visual stories, caricatures of the novice (Figure 1) and expert (Figure 2) designer,…
  30. Another challenge for novice LX designers is mentally organizing and selecting…
  31. … expect, without this foundation, novice designers find generating solutions…
  32. … 2009). The difference in how novices and experts organize and structure their…
  33. The novice Story: How novice Designers Problem-Solve Learning Designs

From Engagement to User Experience: A Theoretical Perspective Towards Immersive Learning

  1. … even with this training, some novice design students still find this skill difficult…

Intentional Learning Design for Educational Games: A Workflow Supporting Novices and Experts

  1. … Method: A Workflow for Both GBL novices and Experts
  2. … The workflow is suitable for novices and experts alike; it identifies different…
  3. … identified (learning mechanics). GBL novices could start by putting these mechanics…

Participatory Design and Co-Design—The Case of a MOOC on Public Innovation

  1. … mixing together designers, users, novices, experts, citizens, or customers with…

online courses

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … recommendations for hybrid or online courses. This chapter situates usability as a useful…
  2. … principles for maximizing the UX of online courses offered within an LMS are provided:…

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. … learning designers developing online courses, established quality metrics such as Quality…
  2. … designers, including those who create online courses by arranging various content, media,…

Flow Theory and Learning Experience Design in Gamified Learning Environments

  1. … techniques to ensure that all online courses at the university met the high expectations…
  2. … gamification elements to learners in online courses (Buckley & Doyle, 2016; Hanus &…

The Role of Needs Assessment to Validate Contextual Factors Related to User Experience Design Practices

  1. … anticipating experience while designing online courses. British Journal of Educational…

Integrating Learner and User Experience Design: A Bidirectional Approach

  1. … February 23). Designing better online courses by understanding learners. U of M: Center…
  2. … Woodgate, A. (2016). Massive Open online courses: Designing for the unknown learner.…
  3. … 2016). Another challenge is that online courses must be designed in advance of launch,…
  4. Next, LXDs identified two online courses which would guide the design of the tool; one…

Participatory Design and Co-Design—The Case of a MOOC on Public Innovation

  1. … Bruillard, 2013), Massive Open online courses (MOOCs) have gained in visibility. While…

Think-Aloud Observations to Improve Online Course Design: A Case Example and “How-to” Guide

  1. … Steps for Conducting TAOs with online courses
  2. … feedback designers receive about online courses is specifically focused on UX (Rapanta…
  3. … multiple design groups work on online courses. The structure, naming conventions, and…
  4. … participants who had taken that unit’s online courses. The target was five participants…
  5. … consistency in UX design across online courses. One participant emphasized a preference…
  6. … Anticipating experience while designing online courses. British Journal of Educational…

online learning

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. … none. For example, to develop online learning resources for parents of children with…
  2. … through technology (particularly online learning), activity theory and distributed cognition…
  3. … of the user interface or the online learning environment will be created. Prototypes…

Flow Theory and Learning Experience Design in Gamified Learning Environments

  1. … results on increasing engagement in online learning (Kuo & Chuang, 2016; Özhan & Kocadere,…
  2. … met the high expectations of online learning at the institution. Before starting the…
  3. … model as an organizing framework. online learning, 21(1), 15–35.
  4. … Wubbels, & B. Hudson (Eds.), online learning communities and teacher professional development:…
  5. … activity, and performance in an online learning course. Computers & Education, 118, 25–37.
  6. … motivation on success in a gamified online learning environment. Journal of Educational…

Sociotechnical-Pedagogical Usability for Designing and Evaluating Learner Experience in Technology-Enhanced Environments

  1. … Howland, J. (2018). Meaningful online learning: Integrating strategies, activities, and…

From Engagement to User Experience: A Theoretical Perspective Towards Immersive Learning

  1. … instruction. MERLOT Journal of online learning and Teaching, 9(3), 364-375.

Intentional Learning Design for Educational Games: A Workflow Supporting Novices and Experts

  1. … improving emotional affordances in an online learning environment. Asia Pacific Education…

Integrating Learner and User Experience Design: A Bidirectional Approach

  1. … experience. Within the context of online learning environments, learners may be varied…
  2. … describing a learner audience's online learning experiences, even in advance of course…
  3. As online learning experiences become more common in higher education, professional development,…
  4. … team’s toolkit for developing online learning experiences. We conclude with a list…
  5. … aim to enhance the school’s online learning opportunities. The result of their work…
  6. … college-age learners with previous online learning experience to participate in a 30…
  7. … learner-centered, research-informed online learning experiences. They also observe and…

Participatory Design and Co-Design—The Case of a MOOC on Public Innovation

  1. … than 20 year history focusing on online learning through videos, forums, and storytelling…

Think-Aloud Observations to Improve Online Course Design: A Case Example and “How-to” Guide

  1. … applies to today’s context. For online learning, the learner’s experience is part…
  2. … used in instructional design and online learning contexts to improve course-design usability;…
  3. … Koh, M. H. (2004). Improving online learning: Student perceptions of useful and challenging…
  4. … online learners in their courses, online learning seems to be a natural, if not critical,…
  5. … learning-centered design principles in online learning environments (Silius et al., 2003,…
  6. … learning satisfaction in the online learning environment is related to technical challenges…
  7. While the merits of UX testing in online learning have been recognized, such efforts have…
  8. … usability testing. Journal of online learning and Teaching, 6(1), 228-245.

paradigms

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … well represented in Gray’s paradigms chapter and Jahnke and colleagues Socio-technical…
  2. 2.1. Methods, paradigms, and Theories of LX Design
  3. … assortment of perspectives on methods, paradigms, and theories related to LX design.…
  4. … chapter in this section, Gray’s paradigms of Knowledge Production in Human-Computer…

Methods, Paradigms, and Theories of LX Design

  1. … assortment of perspectives on methods, paradigms, and theories related to LX design.…

Paradigms of Knowledge Production in Human-Computer Interaction: Towards a Framing for Learner Experience (LX) Design

  1. … language of “waves” and/or “paradigms” (Table 1). While each of these mapping…
  2. … connections—across these three waves or paradigms. Consider the design of a tool…
  3. paradigms (adapted from Harrison et al., 2011, 2007)
  4. … Sengers, P. (2007). The three paradigms of HCI. Alt. Chi. Session at the SIGCHI…
  5. Historical and Conceptual Alignment of paradigms, Waves, and Typical Theoretical…
  6. … strength of HCI as a field. New paradigms may illuminate hidden concerns in other…

participatory design

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. In the chapter participatory design and Co-design—the Case of a MOOC on Public Innovation,…
  2. … Cavignaux-Bros and Cristol’s participatory design and Co-design chapters in this volume…

Paradigms of Knowledge Production in Human-Computer Interaction: Towards a Framing for Learner Experience (LX) Design

  1. … fields. For instance, the use of participatory design and co-design approaches in HCI/UX has…
  2. Hardy, J., & Vargas, S. (2019). participatory design and the future of rural LGBTQ communities.…
  3. participatory design (McCarthy & Wright, 2015) and Co-design (Sanders & Stappers, 2008)
  4. … science for citizens: The view from participatory design. CHI '16: Proceedings of the 2016…
  5. … critical and speculative work. participatory design (PD) and co-design are philosophically…
  6. … Routledge international handbook of participatory design. Routledge.

The Role of Needs Assessment to Validate Contextual Factors Related to User Experience Design Practices

  1. … (2002). From user-centered to participatory design approaches. In J. Frascara (Ed.), Design…

The Design Implementation Framework: Guiding Principles for the Redesign of a Reading Comprehension Intelligent Tutoring System

  1. … learning sciences that encourages participatory design and educators-as-partners in the development…

Participatory Design and Co-Design—The Case of a MOOC on Public Innovation

  1. First, participatory design and co-design sessions need a sufficient number and variety of…
  2. … demonstrated how a mixed methodology of participatory design and co-design processes were…
  3. … Lab team and was part of the participatory design of the second edition of the University…
  4. … co-design is the testing. In participatory design, users participating in the design make…
  5. … van Merriënboer, J. J. (2014). participatory design of learning environments: Integrating…
  6. … (change management), immersion in participatory design and co-design sessions were organized…
  7. … conclusion of research showing the participatory design effect is noticeable far beyond the…
  8. Kensing, F., & Blomberg, J. (1998). participatory design: Issues and concerns. Computer Supported…
  9. participatory design was first defined in Scandinavian literature “as a model for involving…
  10. … technology: The science and politics of participatory design. Accounting, Management and Information…
  11. Using a co-design and a participatory design process (Sanders & Stappers, 2008, 2014) enhanced…
  12. … D., & Schouten, B. (2019). How participatory design works: Mechanisms and effects. OZCHI '19…
  13. … design thinking, co-design, and participatory design to define the MOOC architecture (central…

pedagogical usability

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … additional quality indicators such as pedagogical usability and sociocultural considerations…
  2. … Designing CMS courses from a pedagogical usability perspective. In A. Benson & A. Whitworth…
  3. … and colleagues Socio-technical pedagogical usability chapter.
  4. … section begins with Sociotechnical-pedagogical usability for Evaluating Learner Experience…
  5. … intersection of learner experience and pedagogical usability. In addition to the goal of making…
  6. … (2006). An empirical assessment of pedagogical usability criteria for digital learning material…

Sociotechnical-Pedagogical Usability for Designing and Evaluating Learner Experience in Technology-Enhanced Environments

  1. … Överlund, J. (2002). Criteria for the pedagogical usability, version 1.0. Häme Polytechnic…
  2. … Nokelainen’s (2006) work of pedagogical usability is relevant to this in that he systematically…
  3. … sensitive to pedagogical needs or “pedagogical usability” (Moore et al., 2014; Nokelainen,…
  4. … usability framework sociotechnical-pedagogical usability. An overview of the dimensions and…
  5. … are central to sociotechnical-pedagogical usability. We now turn to the potential implications…
  6. … Related to this is the concept of pedagogical usability, an approach to usability that is less…
  7. … Designing CMS courses from a pedagogical usability perspective. Perspectives in Instructional…
  8. Second, socio-pedagogical usability is situated at the intersection of the social and the pedagogical…
  9. … refer to this as sociotechnical-pedagogical usability, which we expand upon in the following…
  10. Lim, C. J., & Lee, S. (2007). pedagogical usability checklist for ESL/EFL e-learning websites.…
  11. … that we call socio-technical-pedagogical usability show how they affect each other, but even…
  12. … the evaluation of usability, pedagogical usability, accessibility and informational quality…
  13. … present this as sociotechnical-pedagogical usability. In the following sections, we propose…
  14. … research: in short, sociotechnical-pedagogical usability. We encourage future researchers to…
  15. … (2006). An empirical assessment of pedagogical usability criteria for digital learning material…

From Engagement to User Experience: A Theoretical Perspective Towards Immersive Learning

  1. … between usability in learning (pedagogical usability) and HCI. pedagogical usability is similar…

Think-Aloud Observations to Improve Online Course Design: A Case Example and “How-to” Guide

  1. 2. UX, Learner Experience, and pedagogical usability
  2. … (2006). An empirical assessment of pedagogical usability criteria for digital learning material…
  3. … experience and UX is that of pedagogical usability, which refers to a category of usability…
  4. … M. A. S. (2015). Technical and pedagogical usability in E-learning: Perceptions of students…
  5. … the evaluation of usability, pedagogical usability, accessibility and informational quality…
  6. … also contribute to improving pedagogical usability as learning-centered design requires an…
  7. … contexts of learner experience and pedagogical usability. Next, it presented the methods and…
  8. … contexts of learner experience and pedagogical usability. Second, a TAO study conducted with…

pedagogy

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … the synergistic interplay of pedagogy and theory with perceptions of usefulness…

Sociotechnical-Pedagogical Usability for Designing and Evaluating Learner Experience in Technology-Enhanced Environments

  1. … usable technology with usable pedagogy. While technology usability is necessary…
  2. … International Journal of Engineering pedagogy (IJEP), 10(2), 94–111. https://doi.org/10/ggwf3w
  3. … the interplay of technology and pedagogy, suggesting that an ecological perspective…

The Design Implementation Framework: Guiding Principles for the Redesign of a Reading Comprehension Intelligent Tutoring System

  1. … 2011). Advances in technology and pedagogy mean that ITSs are constantly evolving…
  2. … diverse abilities. Technology, pedagogy and Education, 27(2), 183–198. https://edtechbooks.org/-fuKT

From Engagement to User Experience: A Theoretical Perspective Towards Immersive Learning

  1. … it about field trips? Praxis, pedagogy and presence in virtual environments. Procedia-Social…

Intentional Learning Design for Educational Games: A Workflow Supporting Novices and Experts

  1. … complex relationships between pedagogy, learning and entertainment/fun, joining…
  2. … design, interaction design, and pedagogy (Bellotti et al., 2013), making it a…
  3. … educational theorists on 21st century pedagogy” (Arnab et al., 2015, p. 396).…
  4. … interdisciplinary link between pedagogy and game design reinforces LXD’s potential…
  5. … literature across LXD, GBL, and pedagogy more generally as supporting the process…

LX Design-in-Use

  1. … the synergistic interplay of pedagogy and theory with perceptions of usefulness…

Think-Aloud Observations to Improve Online Course Design: A Case Example and “How-to” Guide

  1. … discipline-specific approaches to pedagogy. Additionally, there are new approaches…

personas

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … UX methods and concepts (i.e., personas, prototyping, usability testing, etc.).…
  2. … through the development of learner personas (a well-known approach within UX design…
  3. … productively applied in LIDT (e.g., personas, scenarios, prototyping, usability…

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. 3.1.1. personas
  2. … but for all learner types and personas (including instructors and administrators)…
  3. … in the development of learner personas. Representative learners can be recruited…
  4. … end-user. Using tools such as personas and prototypes, the learning design process…
  5. … particularly valuable when writing user personas and scenarios. Ethnography is…
  6. … the expert typically refers to personas to become informed about the users. Regardless…
  7. … is to create what is known as personas (Cooper, 2004). personas provide a detailed…
  8. A complimentary method to personas is scenarios. Scenarios provide a means to situate…
  9. … an iterative process. Based on personas and identified requirements, an initial…

Paradigms of Knowledge Production in Human-Computer Interaction: Towards a Framing for Learner Experience (LX) Design

  1. Marsden, N., & Pröbster, M. (2019). personas and Identity: Looking at Multiple…

The Role of Needs Assessment to Validate Contextual Factors Related to User Experience Design Practices

  1. … real-world settings. The use of personas is an example of a strategy that has…

Integrating Learner and User Experience Design: A Bidirectional Approach

  1. … (2002). Getting from research to personas: Harnessing the power of data. Cooper…
  2. Instructors developed personas asynchronously (i.e., in advance of a group meeting)…
  3. … overview of three types of learner personas: assumptive, aspirational, and data-informed…
  4. … either assumptive of aspirational personas), which consisted of five categories:
  5. … included one or more learner personas representing the target audiences of the…
  6. … approach within UX design processes (personas) was adopted by LXDs and used within…
  7. … (2017). The persona party: Using personas to design for learning at scale. CHI…
  8. … traditional UX tools such as personas. LXDs can educate instructional teams about…
  9. … audiences before bringing the learner personas into a larger group discussion.
  10. … second design case, we discuss how personas (a traditional UXD methodology) became…
  11. … creating assumptive and aspirational personas. LXDs included reflective prompts…

Participatory Design and Co-Design—The Case of a MOOC on Public Innovation

  1. … description of the stakeholders as personas (Figure 11) and some functionality…

professional development

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … learners-as-end-users and (b) promotion of professional development for all members of a design…
  2. … Collaborative design as a form of professional development. Instructional Science, 43(2), 259–282.…
  3. … reflections on LX design as a professional development outcome of the design teams. By focusing…
  4. … redesign of a gamified online professional development course for university faculty to facilitate…

Theories of Change in Learning Experience (LX) Design

  1. … of technology, curriculum, and professional development for advancing middle school mathematics:…

Flow Theory and Learning Experience Design in Gamified Learning Environments

  1. … M., & Mandernach, B. J. (2015). professional development: Designing initiatives to meet the needs…
  2. … process: The first step in fostering professional development in an online university. Journal…
  3. … orientation on how to navigate the professional development course, faculty were given access…
  4. … challenge to foster engagement in professional development within higher education contexts. The…
  5. … dissatisfied with the current professional development opportunities for online instruction within…
  6. … R., & Gu, J. (2015). A blended professional development program to help a teacher learn to provide…
  7. … formats. This creates a need for professional development defined as organized opportunities designed…
  8. … Challenges of online teacher professional development communities: A statewide case study in the…
  9. … progressed within the online professional development (PD) course, instant feedback mechanisms…
  10. … towards the gamification of a professional development course. The following design case describes…
  11. The professional development's design sought to increase faculty’s engagement using gamification…
  12. … The frequency and variety of professional development programs available to online instructors.…
  13. … engagement within a gamified professional development course. The results of the study suggest…
  14. … offered traditional face-to-face professional development sessions. However, the traditional face-to-face…

Learning Experience Design: Challenges for Novice Designers

  1. … Designers at various stages in their professional development are expected to bring different…

Integrating Learner and User Experience Design: A Bidirectional Approach

  1. … more common in higher education, professional development, and lifelong learning contexts, the…

Participatory Design and Co-Design—The Case of a MOOC on Public Innovation

  1. … Experience Design (LXD) From a professional development Perspective
  2. … MOOCs for large-scale teacher professional development in contexts of mass displacement. London…
  3. … end-users and b) contributing to the professional development of the design team involved in the…
  4. … foster collaboration and the professional development of its staff in instructional design.
  5. … Production Stage -- Reflections From a professional development Perspective

Supporting Equity in Schools: Using Visual Learning Analytics to Understand Learners’ Classroom Experiences

  1. … Luyten, H. (2014). The effects of professional development on the attitudes, knowledge and skills…
  2. … teachers’ use of data systems: professional development, leadership for a supportive data climate,…
  3. … and colleagues (2014) created a professional development course designed to help teachers learn…

prototype

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. … The purpose of creating these prototypes is to communicate designs among the design…
  2. … designer then sends this functional prototype to subject matter experts, who are…
  3. … identified requirements, an initial prototype of the user interface or the online…
  4. … should only be used to evaluate prototypes in the interest of making improvements…
  5. … may also present a lo-fidelity prototype and ask for feedback. The role of the…
  6. … decides to continue iterating prototypes of the comic-book design while better…
  7. … the user during the functional prototype phase. Eye-tracking is a psychophysiological…
  8. … users. Although high fidelity prototypes can emerge from the process of rapid prototyping,…
  9. … learning designers can develop prototype learning designs (e.g., learning modules,…
  10. Functional prototypes are higher-fidelity graphical representations of interfaces…
  11. … Using tools such as personas and prototypes, the learning design process becomes…
  12. … attached to it. While viewing a prototype, EEG data such as illustrated in Figure…
  13. … usability evaluator reviews a prototype but differs in that the expert does not…
  14. … Figure 4). Wireframing results in prototypes that are of higher fidelity than paper…
  15. … and thinking while looking at a prototype (or fully functional system) or completing…
  16. … the designer iterates the early prototypes so the menu information and other features…
  17. … considerations represented in this paper prototype that took less than three minutes…
  18. … Choosing attributes when testing web prototypes. Proceedings of the human factors…

Paradigms of Knowledge Production in Human-Computer Interaction: Towards a Framing for Learner Experience (LX) Design

  1. … commonly use intermediate or final prototypes to elicit user feedback, but the…
  2. … Tenenberg, J. (2008). The anatomy of prototypes: prototypes as filters, prototypes…

Theories of Change in Learning Experience (LX) Design

  1. … formative evaluation of successive prototypes (Sorcar, 2009).[5]
  2. … versions of the game. Though early prototypes had fewer levels and less polished…
  3. As the team began to build out prototypes, they systematically sought feedback on…
  4. The team started to prototype a game that would map different representations (pies,…
  5. … helps inform both the design of prototypes and research metrics.
  6. … particular, before one has a prototype to test, analyzing existing products and…
  7. … particular learning output, early prototypes should be designed to deliberately…
  8. … change, led the team to a series of prototype tests.

The Role of Needs Assessment to Validate Contextual Factors Related to User Experience Design Practices

  1. … that data, and use it to create prototype products and concepts that will be used…
  2. … outcomes associated with design prototypes.

The Design Implementation Framework: Guiding Principles for the Redesign of a Reading Comprehension Intelligent Tutoring System

  1. … experience data, we constructed prototypes of the interface using the Marvel prototyping…
  2. … and user experience with the prototype, we hard-coded iSTART to reflect these design…

Intentional Learning Design for Educational Games: A Workflow Supporting Novices and Experts

  1. … behaviors, Align learning content, and prototype stages. If working directly with…
  2. … may be limited to testing her prototype and iteratively improving it over time,…
  3. … mentally before any material prototype is even attempted. It is certainly recommended…
  4. 3.8. prototype Game
  5. 3.8.2. Extended Example: prototype Game
  6. 3.8.1. Simple Example: prototype Game

Participatory Design and Co-Design—The Case of a MOOC on Public Innovation

  1. … (2014). Probes, toolkits and prototypes: Three approaches to making in codesigning.…
  2. Two new prototypes were produced during this session: a description of the stakeholders…
  3. … using co-design methods to help prototype the macro-design of the MOOC. Public…
  4. … then chose what was relevant to prototype in order to move forward in the design…
  5. … Learning Environments (PLE) were prototyped during a 3 hours co-design workshop;…
  6. … technologies, and creative processes to prototype (Figure 5).
  7. … organized to produce and test prototypes. During the afternoon, each team had to…
  8. … several times. At the end, new prototypes were built.
  9. … workshop in July in which the first prototype of the MOOC's architecture was presented.
  10. … sequences timeline made from the prototypes produced in June (Figure 9) and further…
  11. … preparing an exhibition of the MOOC prototypes as initially planned, they asked…
  12. The two other prototypes were teasers proposing a general theme to introduce innovation…

public innovation

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … Co-design—the Case of a MOOC on public innovation, authors Cavignaux-Bros and Cristol…

Participatory Design and Co-Design—The Case of a MOOC on Public Innovation

  1. … July Event: The University of public innovation
  2. … of knowledge on the topic of public innovation and to enrich the ecosystem of the French…
  3. The idea of a MOOC on public innovation was born from an opportunity to study connectivism…
  4. … goals of the MOOC focused on public innovation. More specifically, after completion of…
  5. … co-design called the University of public innovation. During preparatory workshops came…
  6. … looking to develop skills on public innovation attended the University of Innovation, alongside…
  7. … during the July University’s public innovation event.
  8. … Onboarding; Session 2: Territorial public innovation; Session 3: Collaborate, an innovative…

reading comprehension

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … Principles for the Redesign of a reading comprehension Intelligent Tutoring System, authors…

The Design Implementation Framework: Guiding Principles for the Redesign of a Reading Comprehension Intelligent Tutoring System

  1. … Improving adolescent students' reading comprehension with iSTART. Journal of Educational Computing…
  2. … research and development program in reading comprehension. RAND.
  3. … the DIF in the redesign of the reading comprehension ITS iSTART. Guided by principles of DIF,…
  4. … intelligent tutoring system (ITS) for reading comprehension, iSTART. The development of iSTART…
  5. … Profiles of children with specific reading comprehension difficulties. British Journal of Educational…
  6. … practice to improve students’ reading comprehension skills through self-explanation training.…
  7. … McNamara, D. S. (2016). iSTART-2: A reading comprehension and strategy instruction tutor. In…
  8. … motivated by research in both reading comprehension and ITS development showing that increasing…
  9. … Matthew effects in young readers: reading comprehension and reading experience aid vocabulary…
  10. … the next generation of iSTART reading comprehension training.

requirements

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. 3.1. Developing requirements Based on Learners’ Needs
  2. … (a) identifying user needs, (b) requirements gathering, (c) prototyping, and (d) wireframing.
  3. … identified learner needs, a set of requirements is generated to define what system…
  4. … capabilities or conditions are known as requirements. The process a designer undertakes…
  5. … analysis phase, especially for requirements gathering, is ethnography. Ethnography…
  6. … CSCW: The gap between social requirements and technical feasibility. Human-Computer…
  7. … be used to highlight necessary requirements.
  8. … Based on personas and identified requirements, an initial prototype of the user interface…

Flow Theory and Learning Experience Design in Gamified Learning Environments

  1. … overwhelmed by the design or learning requirements. The next construct necessitates…

Color Theory in Experience Design

  1. … constrained by the preexisting branding requirements of the client (e.g., “our brand…

Sociotechnical-Pedagogical Usability for Designing and Evaluating Learner Experience in Technology-Enhanced Environments

  1. … sociotechnical approach to systems design. requirements Engineering, 5, 125–133.
  2. … and colleagues (1997), “The requirements of interfaces designed to support learning…

Intentional Learning Design for Educational Games: A Workflow Supporting Novices and Experts

  1. … which can include curriculum requirements, organisational parameters, and, of course,…
  2. … learner goals, desires, support-requirements, and enjoyment can help to elucidate…
  3. … higher planes of LXD: Strategy, requirements, and Structure (Plaut, 2014). The initial…

Integrating Learner and User Experience Design: A Bidirectional Approach

  1. … implementation phase. Two design requirements of the backend developer were used,…

Supporting Equity in Schools: Using Visual Learning Analytics to Understand Learners’ Classroom Experiences

  1. … involves determining the central requirements that will lead to the proposed solution…

scenarios

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … applied in LIDT (e.g., personas, scenarios, prototyping, usability testing). Helpful…

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. 3.1.2. scenarios
  2. … when writing user personas and scenarios. Ethnography is also useful if the researcher…
  3. … applicable in all evaluation scenarios, so UX designers tend to pull from existing…
  4. … complimentary method to personas is scenarios. scenarios provide a means to situate…

Color Theory in Experience Design

  1. … actually using color in UX design scenarios. After this, I will briefly explore…

From Engagement to User Experience: A Theoretical Perspective Towards Immersive Learning

  1. … on engagement within learning scenarios that use immersive technology and how the…

Intentional Learning Design for Educational Games: A Workflow Supporting Novices and Experts

  1. … Creative Game-Based Learning scenarios: A Handbook for Teachers (Torrente et al.,…
  2. … Creative Game-Based Learning scenarios: A Handbook for Teachers. https://edtechbooks.org/-cmQp

Participatory Design and Co-Design—The Case of a MOOC on Public Innovation

  1. … these sessions were training scenarios, storyboards for videos, quizzes, programs,…

Think-Aloud Observations to Improve Online Course Design: A Case Example and “How-to” Guide

  1. … research goals to usability-testing scenarios: A 7-step method. Nielsen Norman…

sense-making

Supporting Equity in Schools: Using Visual Learning Analytics to Understand Learners’ Classroom Experiences

  1. … SEET data by focusing on the sense-making of the teachers. Our research team drafted…
  2. … visualizations as the most conducive to sense-making: horizontal bar chart, heatmap,…

serious games

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … D. (2010). From edutainment to serious games: A change in the use of game characteristics.…

Flow Theory and Learning Experience Design in Gamified Learning Environments

  1. … right! International Journal of serious games, 5(3), 61–78.
  2. … M. Ma & A. Oikonomou (Eds.), serious games and edutainment applications (Vol. 2, pp.…
  3. … so serious? On the relation of serious games and learning. Journal for Computer Game…

Sociotechnical-Pedagogical Usability for Designing and Evaluating Learner Experience in Technology-Enhanced Environments

  1. … learning management systems, serious games, etc.). These technology mediated social…

Intentional Learning Design for Educational Games: A Workflow Supporting Novices and Experts

  1. … learning and game mechanics for serious games analysis in engineering education. British…
  2. … methods. International Journal of serious games, 2(1), 2384–8766. https://edtechbooks.org/-BPpH
  3. … effective design and evaluation of serious games. International Journal of Serious…
  4. Westera, W. (2019). Why and how serious games can become far more effective: Accommodating…
  5. … (2017). Essential features of serious games design in higher education: Linking learning…
  6. … (2013). Assessment in and of serious games: An overview. Advances in Human-Computer…

social dimension

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … but also the pedagogical and social dimensions. To operationalize the framework, the authors…

Sociotechnical-Pedagogical Usability for Designing and Evaluating Learner Experience in Technology-Enhanced Environments

  1. … learning—specifically, the pedagogical and social dimensions of learner experience.…
  2. … research are considerations of the social dimension. In this chapter, we have foregrounded…
  3. … both the technological and the social dimensions of the learner experience.
  4. … outcomes. The pedagogical and social dimensions associated with the learning process also…
  5. … learning technologies is the social dimension (Gamage et al., 2020; Kreijns et al., 2003).
  6. … technological, pedagogical, and social dimensions of technology-mediated learning systems…
  7. … student-centered learning, the social dimension is necessary to foster a positive learner…
  8. … also how the pedagogical and social dimensions of learning are influenced by technology.…
  9. … involves the technological and the social dimensions. It uniquely explains how the technology…

technological usability

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … usability not only considers the technological usability of a given learning technology, but…
  2. … Schmidt, Pham, and Singh that claims technological usability evaluation alone is insufficient…

Sociotechnical-Pedagogical Usability for Designing and Evaluating Learner Experience in Technology-Enhanced Environments

  1. … Experience Evaluation: Extending technological usability to Consider Social and Pedagogical Dimensions…
  2. … usability evaluation is known as technological usability. technological usability is apparent…
  3. … without a usable technology tool. technological usability itself is inherently necessary but…
  4. … evaluation, as the central focus of technological usability ignores factors that are critical…
  5. … studies have focused principally on technological usability. More recently, heuristics have begun…
  6. It is clear, therefore, that technological usability is an important aspect of overall LX. However,…
  7. … methods that focus narrowly on technological usability alone prove insufficient when applied…

technology-enhanced learning

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … Evaluating Learner Experience in technology-enhanced learning Environments, a chapter by authors Jahnke,…

Paradigms of Knowledge Production in Human-Computer Interaction: Towards a Framing for Learner Experience (LX) Design

  1. … (2005). Design-based research and technology-enhanced learning environments. Educational Technology…

Sociotechnical-Pedagogical Usability for Designing and Evaluating Learner Experience in Technology-Enhanced Environments

  1. … that usability evaluation of technology-enhanced learning should embrace a broader conceptualization…
  2. … and Pedagogical Dimensions of technology-enhanced learning
  3. … Technological usability is apparent in technology-enhanced learning environments. For example, instructors…
  4. … necessary but insufficient for a technology-enhanced learning environment. Instead, usability and…

Integrating Learner and User Experience Design: A Bidirectional Approach

  1. … and education: Designing for technology-enhanced learning experiences. In K. Norma & J. Kirakowsky…

theory of change

Theories of Change in Learning Experience (LX) Design

  1. … the value of a well-articulated theory of change.
  2. A Simple theory of change in Prevention Begins With Me
  3. … questions derived from their theory of change, the Motion Math team was able to identify…
  4. A key assumption in the theory of change for Bounce was that physical movements would aid…
  5. … of questions related to their theory of change: how comfortable learners were with different…
  6. Mayne, J. (2015). Useful theory of change models. Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation,…
  7. 4.4. Revised theory of change
  8. … design to product viability. A theory of change is key to developing such hypotheses.…
  9. 3.2. theory of change
  10. … et al., 2017). Over time, the theory of change has been further refined and now includes…
  11. 4.2. theory of change
  12. … a simple illustration of this theory of change in Figure 2.
  13. … and communicate an effective theory of change for learning design, we need to have answers…
  14. … process aimed at testing a clear theory of change: that to teach HIV/AIDS prevention effectively,…
  15. … design, we like to illustrate the theory of change through a simple graphic that shows…
  16. The design brief based on this theory of change featured an interactive website rather…
  17. The concept of a theory of change is borrowed from the world of program evaluation. It…
  18. … learning sciences to develop a theory of change to test and refine over multiple iterations.…
  19. … research to develop a more nuanced theory of change (see Figure 6). This deep understanding…
  20. … critical insights to inform the theory of change that undergirds one’s own designs.…
  21. … making progress?" A designer's theory of change leads directly to features and interactions…
  22. … well-designed. A look back at the theory of change shows several testable assumptions.…

think-aloud

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … decision-making. They then elaborate on how think-aloud and cognitive interview methods…
  2. … section concludes with the chapter think-aloud Observations to Improve Online Course…

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. Similar to the think-aloud user study, eye-tracking is an evaluation method that involves…
  2. … these situations, a retrospective think-aloud can be beneficial. After the eye-tracking…
  3. Unlike A/B testing, a think-aloud user study is only used during the functional prototyping…
  4. … valuable data can come from a think-aloud user study (Krug, 2010). Sometimes participants…
  5. think-aloud user testing is the most widely used method of usability evaluation in…
  6. 4.7. think-aloud User Study
  7. Users do not necessarily have to think-aloud while they are using the system. The…

The Design Implementation Framework: Guiding Principles for the Redesign of a Reading Comprehension Intelligent Tutoring System

  1. … in everyday life: Contrasting think-aloud protocols with descriptions and explanations…
  2. … Rather than asking participants to think-aloud, we conducted retrospective interviews…

Supporting Equity in Schools: Using Visual Learning Analytics to Understand Learners’ Classroom Experiences

  1. 3.1. Use case 1: Using the think-aloud method
  2. The think-aloud method is a way of understanding the cognitive processes of the participants…
  3. … males, three females). In our think-aloud studies, we showed the teachers different…
  4. After the think-aloud, teachers then participated in cognitive interviews (Fisher…
  5. … interviews, affinity mapping, and think-aloud. Dollinger and colleagues (2019) stressed…

Think-Aloud Observations to Improve Online Course Design: A Case Example and “How-to” Guide

  1. … training in how to conduct a think-aloud observation. In order to reduce pressure…
  2. … practice?: An explorative study of think-aloud testing. DIS '06L Proceedings of the…
  3. … (2008) assert that through the think-aloud technique, one can “capture preference…
  4. … Improving online course design with think-aloud observations: A “how-to” guide…
  5. … gift card on completion of the think-aloud observation; funding for incentives was…
  6. … K. (2006). Reflecting on the think-aloud method for evaluating e-learning. British…
  7. … Improving online course design with think-aloud observations: A “how-to” guide…
  8. … UX testing, specifically the think-aloud observation (TAO) method, can be used in…
  9. 3. think-aloud Observations Study
  10. … people's heads?: Reflections on the think-aloud technique. NordiCHI '02: Proceedings…

Universal Design for Learning (UDL)

Flow Theory and Learning Experience Design in Gamified Learning Environments

  1. … leveraged an initiative called the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) to support teachers as they design…

usability

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … personas, scenarios, prototyping, usability testing). Helpful examples of how to…
  2. … outcomes are distinct. For example, usability testing is perhaps the most recognizable…
  3. … with Sociotechnical-Pedagogical usability for Evaluating Learner Experience in…
  4. … learner experience and pedagogical usability. In addition to the goal of making…
  5. … empirical assessment of pedagogical usability criteria for digital learning material…
  6. … having participants complete a usability questionnaire at the end of a design cycle.…
  7. … CMS courses from a pedagogical usability perspective. In A. Benson & A. Whitworth…
  8. … (i.e., personas, prototyping, usability testing, etc.). Building on identified…
  9. … learning tools, which adapts known usability heuristics to a range of learning-related…

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. … cognitive load and improving usability. Evaluation methods are discussed in the…
  2. … is similar in that an expert usability evaluator reviews a prototype but differs…
  3. … analysis best practices. Journal of usability Studies, 8(3), 69–89.
  4. … practice and beyond. Journal of usability Studies, 4(1), 1–6.
  5. … Ayres, 2005) through improved usability. When an interface is not designed with…
  6. … UsersNote. Derived from: http://usabilitybok.org/persona
  7. … others focus more specifically on usability. Table 3 provides an overview of methods,…
  8. Nielsen, J. (2012). usability 101: Introduction to usability. Nielsen Norman Group.…
  9. … on the learner experience and usability of their designs. In the following sections,…
  10. … were derived from 249 identified usability problems (Nielsen, 1994). In the field…
  11. … may be the single most valuable usability engineering method” (p. 195). In a…
  12. … functional prototype is then usability tested with a representative parent, and…
  13. … Nielsen & R. L. Mack (Eds.), usability inspection methods (pp. 105–140). John…
  14. … Nielsen & R. L. Mack (Eds.), usability inspection methods (pp. 25–62). John Wiley…
  15. usabilityTest (2006). Paper prototyping. https://edtechbooks.org/-WFzk
  16. Nielsen, J. (1993). usability engineering. Morgan Kaufmann.
  17. … do-it-yourself guide to finding and fixing usability problems. New Riders.
  18. … Lauber, Erick & Loh, S. (2002). usability and instructional design heuristics for…
  19. … prototyping, refer to Snyder (2003) and usabilityNet (2012).
  20. usability and HCI are often situated in established theories such as cognitive load…
  21. … the most widely used method of usability evaluation in practice, including in the…
  22. … are user experience (UX) and usability. UX describes the broader context of technology…
  23. … user. In a heuristic evaluation, usability experts work independently to review…
  24. … S.-Y. (2016). A study on the usability of E-books and APP in engineering courses:…
  25. … Hollebrands, K. (2016). Utility and usability as factors influencing teacher decisions…
  26. … improving web accessibility and usability of Open CourseWare sites. Computers &…

Paradigms of Knowledge Production in Human-Computer Interaction: Towards a Framing for Learner Experience (LX) Design

  1. … (1999). A practical guide to usability testing. Intellect Ltd.
  2. … method: A practitioner’s guide. usability Inspection Methods, 105–140.
  3. … Fitzmaurice, G. (2011). Post-deployment usability: A survey of current practices.…
  4. … Practitioners Produce Findings in usability Testing. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human…

Theories of Change in Learning Experience (LX) Design

  1. … of engagement, likability, and usability to measure progress. All of these measures,…
  2. … measures of both learning and usability to drive their design decisions.

Sociotechnical-Pedagogical Usability for Designing and Evaluating Learner Experience in Technology-Enhanced Environments

  1. … along key dimensions related to usability evaluation that considers not only the…
  2. … principally on technological usability. More recently, heuristics have begun to…
  3. … to sociotechnical-pedagogical usability. We now turn to the potential implications…
  4. … Evaluation: Extending Technological usability to Consider Social and Pedagogical…
  5. … is the concept of pedagogical usability, an approach to usability that is less…
  6. Squires, D., & Preece, J. (1996). usability and learning: evaluating the potential…
  7. … CMS courses from a pedagogical usability perspective. Perspectives in Instructional…
  8. Technology usability and user-friendliness of tools:
  9. … considering the three dimensions of usability identified by our literature review—namely,…
  10. … Mayhew, P. (2016). Assessing the usability of learning management system: User…
  11. … Enhancing the explanatory power of usability heuristics. CHI ’94: Proceedings…
  12. … Pragmatic evaluation: Lessons from usability. 13th Annual Conference of the Australasian…
  13. … Collecting, analyzing, and presenting usability metrics. Elsevier.
  14. Second, socio-pedagogical usability is situated at the intersection of the social…
  15. … empirical assessment of pedagogical usability criteria for digital learning material…
  16. … Ludovice, P. (1997). Balancing usability and learning in an interface. CHI '97:…
  17. … Criteria for the pedagogical usability, version 1.0. Häme Polytechnic and University…
  18. … speaking, traditional (technological) usability evaluation focuses on the user…
  19. … Nokelainen’s (2006) work of pedagogical usability is relevant to this in that…
  20. Drawing from this, traditional usability evaluation or testing considers the following…
  21. … (a) acknowledge the utility of usability evaluation to exploring and assessing…
  22. … design are applying methods from usability and user experience (UX) research for…
  23. … therefore, that technological usability is an important aspect of overall LX. However,…
  24. … as sociotechnical-pedagogical usability, which we expand upon in the following…
  25. usability evaluation is perhaps the most widely-practiced research methodology in…
  26. … & Lee, S. (2007). Pedagogical usability checklist for ESL/EFL e-learning websites.…
  27. usability dimension
  28. … usable pedagogy. While technology usability is necessary but not sufficient for…
  29. … Loranger, H. (2006). Prioritizing web usability. Pearson Education.
  30. … dimensions. First is socio-technical usability, which involves the technological…
  31. … distance education: Effects of usability on learning. Interacting with Computers,…
  32. … multidisciplinary tool for the evaluation of usability, pedagogical usability,…
  33. … inherent technocentric bias of usability evaluation, as the central focus of technological…
  34. … J. Nielsen & R. Mack (Eds.), usability inspection methods (pp. 25–62). John Wiley…

Learning Experience Design: Challenges for Novice Designers

  1. … design? Documenting the effect of usability sessions on novice software designers.…

The Role of Needs Assessment to Validate Contextual Factors Related to User Experience Design Practices

  1. … conducts assessments to measure usability, and (c) works to create high fidelity…
  2. … into consideration the fidelity, usability, and functionality (Norman, 2013) of…
  3. … issues with relevancy, fidelity, usability, and functionality (Norman, 2013; Sanders,…
  4. … fidelity, functionality, and usability.

The Design Implementation Framework: Guiding Principles for the Redesign of a Reading Comprehension Intelligent Tutoring System

  1. … J. Nielsen & R. Mack (Eds.), usability inspection methods (pp. 105–140). Wiley.
  2. … intelligent tutoring system: usability testing and development. Computers and Composition,…
  3. … little work has been published on usability and experience in intelligent tutoring…
  4. … data. Cognitive walkthrough is a usability inspection method in which evaluators…
  5. usability and user experience research methods to test and refine the designs (e.g.,…
  6. … Zhang, S., & Craig, S. D. (2015). usability evaluation of intelligent tutoring…
  7. … development with iSTART, is that usability and experience must be gauged across…
  8. … responded to the 10 items about the usability of the system on a Likert scale from…
  9. … (1996). SUS-A quick and dirty usability scale. usability Evaluation in Industry,…
  10. … also had students complete a usability survey, adapted from the System usability
  11. … R. T., & Tsai, I. H. (2014). usability of affective interfaces for a digital arts…
  12. … empirical evaluation of the system usability scale. International Journal of Human-Computer…
  13. … recognize the need to focus on usability and user experience. Solely examining…
  14. … the inconsistency across system usability and user preference. One limitation to…

From Engagement to User Experience: A Theoretical Perspective Towards Immersive Learning

  1. … learning, we address both the UX and usability conceptualizations of the technology…
  2. 3.3.3. usability
  3. Interactivity through good usability practices and design can improve immediate…
  4. … Rossano, V. (2006). An approach to usability evaluation of e-learning applications.…
  5. … immersive framework, we note that usability factors cannot be ignored because UX…
  6. … involvement, motivation, and usability.
  7. … computerised diagnostic tool: For usability evaluation of virtual/synthetic environment…
  8. … attributes enable key concepts in UX, usability, and learning to establish learner…
  9. … often will forgive issues of usability or ignore the content of the experience…
  10. usability plays an integral role in how technology influences the experience. Commonly,…
  11. … Enjoyment is strongly related to usability and considered a factor leading to learner…
  12. … feedback is directly tied to usability, which can either increase or decrease satisfaction,…
  13. … engaging with the content, and the usability of the system's navigation and setup…

Integrating Learner and User Experience Design: A Bidirectional Approach

  1. 3.2.4. Software Testing: usability and Learning
  2. … different from a UX focus on usability and task efficiency. Learner-centered design…
  3. With respect to evaluating the usability of a digital interface, Jakob Nielsen’s…
  4. … learning courses: Implications for usability. Scientific Journal on Applied Information…
  5. … discussion forums that present major usability challenges.
  6. … does not mean, however, that usability holds decreased significance in learner-centered…
  7. … team had several objectives when usability testing the mock-ups:

Supporting Equity in Schools: Using Visual Learning Analytics to Understand Learners’ Classroom Experiences

  1. Greenberg, S., & Buxton, B. (2008). usability evaluation considered harmful (some…

Think-Aloud Observations to Improve Online Course Design: A Case Example and “How-to” Guide

  1. Rowley, D. E. (1994). usability testing in the field: Bringing the laboratory to…
  2. … Rossano, V. (2006). An approach to usability evaluation of e-learning applications.…
  3. … computer‐mediated instruction through usability evaluations. British Journal…
  4. … Hornbæk, K. (2006 ). What do usability evaluators do in practice?: An explorative…
  5. … contribute to improving pedagogical usability as learning-centered design requires…
  6. Nielsen, J. (1993). usability engineering. Academic Press.
  7. … Poylymenakou, A. (2009). Developing a usability evaluation method for e -learning…
  8. … specific tasks to demonstrate the usability of those elements need to be written.…
  9. … September 17). From research goals to usability-testing scenarios: A 7-step method.…
  10. … Hornbæk, K. (2000). Measuring usability: Are effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction…
  11. … learner experience and pedagogical usability. Next, it presented the methods and…
  12. … (2015). E-Learning courseware usability: Building a theoretical model. The Journal…
  13. … contexts to improve course-design usability; the chapter is organized as follows.…
  14. … (2015). Technical and pedagogical usability in E-learning: Perceptions of students…
  15. … help identify roughly 80% of the usability problems in a system (Nielsen, 1993;…
  16. … multidisciplinary tool for the evaluation of usability, pedagogical usability,…
  17. … ultimate learning. It is the usability properties of the e-learning system that…
  18. … participants per unit based on usability best practices (Nielsen, 2000). The study…
  19. … Learner Experience, and Pedagogical usability
  20. … online course design through usability testing. Journal of Online Learning and…
  21. … do-it-yourself guide to finding and fixing usability problems. New Riders.
  22. … student feedback on course-design usability assists designers in creating environments…
  23. Nielsen, J. (2012, January 3). usability 101: Introduction to usability. Nielsen…
  24. … (1992). Refining the test phase of usability evaluation: How many subjects is enough?…
  25. … standardized approaches. However, usability benefits when there is consistency…
  26. … common sense approach to web usability (3rd ed.). New Riders.
  27. … Chisnell, D. (2008). Handbook of usability testing: How to plan, design, and conduct…
  28. … empirical assessment of pedagogical usability criteria for digital learning material…
  29. … Health & Human Services. (2016). usability testing. https://www.usability.gov/how-to-and-tools/…
  30. … and UX is that of pedagogical usability, which refers to a category of usability
  31. … Collecting, analyzing, and presenting usability metrics. Elsevier.
  32. Zaharias, P. (2004). usability and e-learning: The road towards integration. eLearn…

user experience (UX)

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … for instructional designers and user experience (UX) designers, these authors provide useful…
  2. … of learner experience (LX) and user experience (UX) in the field of learning/instructional…

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. … (Rogers, 2012)—two of which are user experience (UX) and usability. UX describes the broader…

Paradigms of Knowledge Production in Human-Computer Interaction: Towards a Framing for Learner Experience (LX) Design

  1. … substantially by practitioners known as user experience (UX) designers—a transdisciplinary…

Theories of Change in Learning Experience (LX) Design

  1. … measures, while important to user experience (UX) and eventual product viability, should not…

Flow Theory and Learning Experience Design in Gamified Learning Environments

  1. … encounter unforeseen obstacles due to user experience (UX) challenges. For example, a design…

Sociotechnical-Pedagogical Usability for Designing and Evaluating Learner Experience in Technology-Enhanced Environments

  1. … applying methods from usability and user experience (UX) research for evaluating and improving…

The Role of Needs Assessment to Validate Contextual Factors Related to User Experience Design Practices

  1. … present a systems approach to user experience (UX) design practices, differentiate between…

From Engagement to User Experience: A Theoretical Perspective Towards Immersive Learning

  1. … effectiveness, and the other is focused on user experience (UX) from human-computer interaction…

Integrating Learner and User Experience Design: A Bidirectional Approach

  1. … needs can motivate and guide a user experience (UX) design process, and we investigate how…

user-centered design (UCD)

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … LIDT? There is no question that user-centered design (UCD) methods increasingly are being applied…

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. … supporting positive user experience. user-centered design (UCD) emphasizes understanding users’…

visual analytics

Supporting Equity in Schools: Using Visual Learning Analytics to Understand Learners’ Classroom Experiences

  1. … illustrates our ideas about how visual analytics tools can support more equitable classrooms.…
  2. … the design of the SEETs as a visual analytics tool. Teachers first gather student data…
  3. … the SEETs, validate our view of visual analytics as having the potential to serve as a…
  4. … teachers attend to equity using visual analytics. We adopted the grounded theory approach…
  5. … feedback on the design of the visual analytics tool addressing equity.
  6. … teachers’ perceptions related to visual analytics, they used methods including case…
  7. … Electronic Exit Tickets (SEET): A visual analytics Tool Supporting Equitable Instruction…
  8. … Vehicle for Producing Equitable visual analytics

visual design

Introduction to the Edited Volume

  1. … stands apart as an application of visual design theory as applied in LX design practice,…

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. … The initial sketch considers visual design (sequence of scenes, positioning of the…
  2. … continues. In this way, content, visual design, and interaction design can all be tested…
  3. … with links between screens. A visual design is conceived and added to the wireframe,…
  4. … of content, before more formal visual design and content creation occurs. Wireframing…

wireframe

Methods of User Centered Design and Evaluation for Learning Designers

  1. … designer has received approval on a wireframe set for mobile microlearning materials…
  2. … prototype might start out as a wireframe interface with links between screens.…
  3. wireframes consist of simple representations of an interface, with interface elements…
  4. wireframes are medium fidelity representations of interfaces that visually convey…
  5. … unnecessary effort by developing wireframes for how content will be structured…

Integrating Learner and User Experience Design: A Bidirectional Approach

  1. 3.2.3. Sketch and wireframe