Gramática: Pronombres nominales

"hazlo tú mismo" by alterna ► is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0.

In Spanish, subject pronouns are used to clarify or emphasize the subject. In most cases, they are optional because you can tell what the subject is by looking at the verb conjugation (ending). 






nosotros, nosotras 




you (familiar) 


vosotros,  vosotras 

you [all] (familiar) 


usted, Ud.



you (formal) 




ustedes, Uds. 



you [all] (formal) 

they (masculine) 

they (feminine) 


(In the following list of observations, all subject pronouns are in bold.) 

  •  is a familiar pronoun used for people you address by their first name or whom you know well.   
  • Usted (Ud.) is a formal pronoun used for people you address by title, by last name, a figure with authority, or whom you don't know well. 
  • Vosotros and vosotras is a familiar plural pronoun used only in Spain for people you address by first name.
  • Ustedes (Uds.) is a formal plural pronoun in Spain. In other Spanish speaking countries, it is formal or informal and designates only the plural. 
  • Nosotros, vosotros, and ellos are used when referring to all male groups or groups that have at least one male person. 
  • Nosotras, vosotras, and ellas are used when referring to all female groups. 

Gender in Spanish

As with all romance languages, Spanish nouns show grammatical gender: la mesa, el árbol (the table, the tree). Articles, adjectives, and pronouns match the grammatical gender of the noun they describe. At the time of this writing in summer 2022, Spanish has not yet developed a consistent gender-neutral pronoun or gender-neutral adjective ending. Several have been proposed: the arroba @ - (for example, chic@)an X (as you may have seen in the descriptor Latinx, widely used in the United States), and the pronoun elle (which takes adjective endings of -e). 

For more information, see Wikipedia's entry on Elle


Actividades de comunicación

Actividad 1:

Tell your partner the subject pronoun you would use in the blanks.  Your partner will agree or disagree.  If your partner disagrees, a new pronoun must be offered and an explanation as to why that one is better should be made until you both agree. 

"This photo" is licensed under CC0 PD.
  1. ______ me llamo María.
  2. María dice: “______ se llama Elena y es mi amiga.” 
  3. María dice: “______ se llama Carlos y es mi amigo también.” 
  4. Luis y Miguel dicen: “______ nos llamamos Luis y Miguel.  Somos compañeros de clase de María.” 
  5. ______ te llamas Lola y eres la mamá de María 
  6. María dice: “______ se llaman Marcos y Susana.” 
  7. Luis dice: "_______ se llama Fran y es mi amig___. Se identifica como una persona non-binaria."
"#CSW62 - 2018 Women’s Empowerment Principles Forum" by UN Women Gallery is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0.

Actividad 1 continued (parte 2):

  1. - ¿Cómo se llama _______? 
  2.               - ______ me llamo señor Martínez.  Mucho gusto.  
  3.  - ¿Cómo se llaman ___________? 
  4.               - ____________ nos llamamos señor y señora González.  Encantados de conocerles. 
  5.  María dice: “_________se llaman Luisa y Martina y son amigas de la universidad.” 
  6.  - ¿Cómo os llamáis _____________? (informal, plural) 
  7.               - ______________ nos llamamos Raúl y José. 

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