Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)

This measure is for adultsThis is a free measure

The PANAS measures wellbeing through two mood scales: one measuring positive affect (emotions) and the other measuring  negative affect. Participants respond to its 20 items on a 5-point Likert scale according to how often they have experienced specific emotions over the past week. The PANAS has moderately good reliability and validity (Watson, 1988), and it has been used in a variety of dissertations and articles (statistics solutions). Available in French, German, and Swedish as well as English, it can be used with no cost without the necessity of contacting the American Psychological Association Permissions Office for non-profit research purposes (Mapi Research Trust).

Pros for Schools

Cons for Schools

Has a partner scale for children (see PANAS-C)
Multiple translations available


Suggestions for Further Research

Mapi Research Trust. (n.d.). Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Retrieved from https://edtechbooks.org/-VvT 

Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). (n.d.). Retrieved from https://edtechbooks.org/-yttn 

Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063.

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